What are the future issues under consideration relating to TRIPS?

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Some of the issues that are under debate relating to TRIPS are – • The effectiveness of the 2003 “waiver” in the 2001 Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health. The waiver in Doha Declaration removes a requirement that generics produced under compulsory license should be mainly for the domestic market. This would hinder their… Read more »

What is TRIPS?

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Privy Counci

The Agreement on Trade related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights of the WTO is commonly known as the TRIPS Agreement or simply TRIPS. TRIPS is one of the main agreements comprising the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Agreement. This Agreement was negotiated as part of the eighth round of multilateral trade negotiations in the period 1986-94… Read more »

What are the provisions of Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary (SPS) Measures and Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT)?

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The provisions in the Chapters on Sanitary and Phyto-sanitary (SPS) Measures provide the framework for addressing regulations and standards pertaining to human, animal and plant life or health while the Chapter on TBT provides the framework for product testing and certification requirements. Patent – A patent in an exclusive right granted by a country to… Read more »

Which products are included in India’s Exclusion List?

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Key items in India’s Exclusion list are – Vegetables – Tomato, onion, garlic, ginger, carrot, radish, cauliflower, cucumber, peas, beans, chilli, capsicum, potato, etc. Fruit/Nuts – coconut, copra, cashew kernel, areca nut, betel nut, banana, pineapple, guava, mango, oranges, grapes, raisin, apple, lemon, watermelon, papaya, cherries, etc. Spices – chilli powder, nutmeg, vanilla, cardamom, fenugreek,… Read more »

What are the different types of tariff concessions offered?

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Privy Counci

Tariff concessions are offered either through (1) tariff elimination or (2) tariff reduction. The List of items for which – Tariffs are to be eliminated (including through phasing out periods) is called the Normal Track, Tariffs are to be reduced to 0% and 5% is called the Sensitive Track and Tariffs are to be reduced… Read more »

What are the different categories of Natural persons and how are they defined?

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Privy Counci

The various categories of natural persons are defined as under – Contractual service suppliers (CSS): A service supplier of country “A” without a commercial presence in country “B”, sends one of its employees to country “B” to supply a service, pursuant to a service contract it has concluded with a consumer there; Intra-corporate transferees (ICT):… Read more »

What are Mutual Recognition Agreements?

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The Mutual recognition relates with qualifications, academic certifications and experience requirements in services. A Mutual Recognition Agreement (MRA) is an agreement by which two or more countries agree to recognize one another’s conformity assessments. In Services, these are applied on the recognition of professional qualifications. Regulatory bodies of various professional services like engineering, accountancy, architecture… Read more »

What are other non tariff measures (NTMs) that are dealt in FTAs?

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Some of the other non tariff measures that figure in FTA chapters are- Customs procedures Import licencing procedures Trade documentation Pre-shipment inspections. Patent – A patent in an exclusive right granted by a country to the owner of an invention to make, use, manufacture and market the invention, provided the invention satisfies certain conditions stipulated… Read more »

What are ROO?

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ROO stand for Rules of origin. ROO are the criteria needed to determine the of a product for purposes of international trade. Their importance is derived from the fact that duties and restrictions in several cases depend upon the source of imports. Rules of origin are used- To implement measures and instruments of commercial policy… Read more »

How is India placed globally in terms of its bilateral PTAs/FTAs/ CECAs/CEPAs?

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India has preferential access, economic cooperation and Free Trade Agreements (FTA) with about 54 individual countries. India has signed bilateral trade deals in the form of Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA)/ Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement (CECA)/FTA/Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) with some 18 groups/countries. India is a late, and cautious, starter in concluding comprehensive preferential tariff… Read more »