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Besides command and control, what other approaches are in practice to prevent and control pollution?

Besides command and control, what other approaches are in practice to prevent and control pollution?

In certain countries market based instruments have either replaced command and control or practiced in-conjunction with command and control. In this situation, there is possibility of one unit trading its waste load with another unit. However, under the Indian situation as yet command and control reigns supreme with some scope for economic instruments. The industries also adopt voluntary schemes based upon CREP under which they voluntarily submit to adoption of measures aimed at environmental compliance beyond the legal norms. They also benchmark themselves against International Standards, like getting ISO 14001 certificate.

Permission like consent and or Environmental Clearance or CRZ clearance need to be obtained before setting up of an industrial unit and Consent/Authorization are mandatory before starting of the production. Running a polluting industry without the mandatory clearances is an offence and such unit will be liable to face stringent actions like closure and prosecution. Clearances are given for stipulated period and they need to be renewed before the term expires. Activities like contaminating the land by illegal dumping of hazardous wastes will invite penal provisions like fine and restoration of the contaminated land at the cost of the polluter, in addition to other steps.

The important Environmental Laws in India
  • Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974;
  • Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981,
  • Cess Act, 1977, – Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 and Rules there under
  • Public Liability Insurance Act, 1981,
  • National Environmental Tribunal Act, 1995
  • National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997

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