1.Cumulative or Non-cumulative : A non-cumulative or simple preference shares gives right to fixed percentage dividend of profit of each year. In case no dividend thereon is declared in any year because of absence of profit, the holders of preference shares get nothing nor can they claim unpaid dividend in the subsequent year or years in respect of that year. Cumulative preference shares however give the right to the preference shareholders to demand the unpaid dividend in any year during the subsequent year or years when the profits are available for distribution . In this case dividends which are not paid in any year are accumulated and are paid out when the profits are available.
2.Redeemable and Non- Redeemable : Redeemable Preference shares are preference shares which have to be repaid by the company after the term of which for which the preference shares have been issued. Irredeemable Preference shares means preference shares need not repaid by the company except on winding up of the company. However, under the Indian Companies Act, a company cannot issue irredeemable preference shares. In fact, a company limited by shares cannot issue preference shares which are redeemable after more than 10 years from the date of issue. In other words the maximum tenure of preference shares is 10 years. If a company is unable to redeem any preference shares within the specified period, it may, with consent of the Company Law Board, issue further redeemable preference shares equal to redeem the old preference shares including dividend thereon. A company can issue the preference shares which from the very beginning are redeemable on a fixed date or after certain period of time not exceeding 10 years provided it comprises of following conditions :-
1.It must be authorised by the articles of association to make such an issue.
2.The shares will be only redeemable if they are fully paid up.
3.The shares may be redeemed out of profits of the company which otherwise would be available for dividends or out of proceeds of new issue of shares made for the purpose of redeem shares.
4.If there is premium payable on redemption it must have provided out of profits or out of shares premium account before the shares are redeemed.
5.When shares are redeemed out of profits a sum equal to nominal amount of shares redeemed is to be transferred out of profits to the capital redemption reserve account. This amount should then be utilised for the purpose of redemption of redeemable preference shares. This reserve can be used to issue of fully paid bonus shares to the members of the company.
3.Participating Preference Share or non-participating preference shares : Participating Preference shares are entitled to a preferential dividend at a fixed rate with the right to participate further in the profits either along with or after payment of certain rate of dividend on equity shares. A non-participating share is one which does not such right to participate in the profits of the company after the dividend and capital have been paid to the preference shareholders.