ROO stand for Rules of origin. ROO are the criteria needed to determine the of a product for purposes of international trade. Their importance is derived from the fact that duties and restrictions in several cases depend upon the source of imports.
Rules of origin are used-
- To implement measures and instruments of commercial policy such as antidumping duties and safeguard measures;
- To determine whether imported products shall receive most-favoured-nation (MFN) treatment or preferential treatment;
- For the purpose of trade statistics;
- For the application of labelling and marking requirements; and
- For government procurement.
A patent in an exclusive right granted by a country to the owner of an invention to make, use, manufacture and market the invention, provided the invention satisfies certain conditions stipulated in the law. Exclusivity of right implies that no one else can make, use, manufacture or market the invention without the consent of the patent holder. This right is available only for a limited period of time.
However, the use or exploitation of a patent may be affected by other laws of the country which has awarded the patent. These laws may relate to health, safety, food, security etc. Further, existing patents in similar area may also come in the way. A patent in the law is a property right and hence, can be gifted, inherited, assigned, sold or licensed.
As the right is conferred by the State, it can be revoked by the State under very special circumstances even if the patent has been sold or licensed or manufactured or marketed in the meantime. The patent right is territorial in nature and inventors/their assignees will have to file separate patent applications in countries of their interest, along with necessary fees, for obtaining patents in those countries.