The term ‘taking cognizance’ has not been defined in Code of Criminal Procedure. When any Magistrate takes cognizance under section 190 (1) (a) Cr.P.C., he must not only have applied his mind to the contents of the petition, but he must have done so for the purpose of proceeding in a particular way as per procedure prescribed in the Cr.P.C., and there after sending the complaint for further enquiry. A magistrate can also order investigations under section 156(3) of Cr.P.C.
F.I.R. means First Information Report, made to police, about commission of a cognizable offence, In effect, it amounts to putting law in to motion by giving information relating to the commission of a cognizable offence to an officer in charge of a police station, (which shall be reduced into writing and read over to the informant) and shall be signed by the person giving such information. It is mandatory to give a copy of the first information report (as recorded by police) to the complainant or informant free of cost.
Any person who is victim of an offence or who is a witness to any such offence or who has knowledge about the commission of any such offence can lodge an F.I.R.