Undisclosed information, or trade secrets have been provided protection by the TRIPS agreement for the first time in public international law. This explicitly requires undisclosed information- trade secrets or know-how – to benefit from protection. The protection is applied to information that is secret, has commercial value because it is secret, and has been subject… Read more »
Some of the issues that are under debate relating to TRIPS are – • The effectiveness of the 2003 “waiver” in the 2001 Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health. The waiver in Doha Declaration removes a requirement that generics produced under compulsory license should be mainly for the domestic market. This would hinder their… Read more »
By entering into FTAs with the developed countries, developing countries see some advantages in tariff reductions on agricultural, clothing and other products. In return, developed countries seek better market access and investment opportunities for products and services of their interest. In addition, developed countries also seek to raise the minimum levels of protection for IPRs… Read more »
IPRs are territorial rights and can be acquired in the territory of the country having an IPR law. That is, IPR acquired in one country cannot be enforced in another country. The TRIPS Agreement lays down only certain minimum standards of protection and enforcement of IPRs by its Members through enactment of such national laws… Read more »
The framework of stringent intellectual property rights established by the TRIPS Agreement enables pharmaceutical manufacturers to charge prices above marginal cost of production. This affects the ability of governments to monitor and protect public health because of their obligations to protect IPRs of the manufacturers. This means that Governments may find their capacity to ensure affordable… Read more »
Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) at a multilateral level have their genesis in the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property in 1883 which protected industrial property i.e. Patents and trademarks and the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in 1886 for copyrights and related rights. World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) which… Read more »
The IPRs covered by the TRIPS Agreement are: Copyright and related rights (i.e. the rights of performers, producers of sound recordings and broadcasting organizations) Trademarks, including service marks Geographical indications including appellations of origin Industrial designs Patents including the protection of new varieties of plants Layout-designs (topographies) of integrated circuits Undisclosed information, including trade secrets… Read more »
The precursor to the WTO was the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) which sought to address issues related to international trade in goods. The operation of the GATT over the years resulted in lowering of tariffs in general in international trade. As a result, increasingly, other domestic policies of nations came into focus… Read more »
The Agreement on Trade related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights of the WTO is commonly known as the TRIPS Agreement or simply TRIPS. TRIPS is one of the main agreements comprising the World Trade Organisation (WTO) Agreement. This Agreement was negotiated as part of the eighth round of multilateral trade negotiations in the period 1986-94… Read more »
There are broadly 11 sectors and 72 sub- sectors included in the agreement. The sectoral commitments of the agreement covers Business services, Communication Services, Construction And Related Engineering Services, Distribution Services, Educational Services , Environmental Services ,Health Related And Social Services, Tourism And Travel Related Services, Recreational, Cultural And Sporting Services, Transport Services,Other Services (Skills… Read more »
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