There are certain established rules to determine whether statement is defamatory or not. The first rule is that the whole of the statement complained of must be read and not only a part or parts of it.
The second is that words are to be taken in the sense of their natural and ordinary meaning. The Court must have regard to what the words would convey to the ordinary man.
The test to be applied for the determination of the question whether a statement is defamatory is the answer to the question, ‘would the words tend to lower the plaintiff in the estimation of right-thinking members of society?’
Defamation is the communication of a false statement that harms the reputation of an individual person, business, product,group, government, religion, or nation.
A mans reputation is his property. It is a jus in rem, a right good against all the world. IPC 498a libel comes under libel(written) and when published in newspapers. It is of permanent form and criminal in nature. Cause of action arises when statement or complaint is (i) false, (ii) in writing; (iii) defamatory; and (iv) published.