What is the difference between the terms such as PTA, CECA, RTA, CEPA, Customs Union, Common Market and Economic Union? How are these related to FTAs?

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Preferential Trade Agreement (PTA): In a PTA, two or more partners agree to reduce tariffs on agreed number of tariff lines. The list of products on which the partners agree to reduce duty is called positive list. India MERCOSUR PTA is such an example. However, in general PTAs do not cover substantially all trade. Free… Read more »

What are Free Trade Agreements?

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FTAs are arrangements between two or more countries or trading blocs that primarily agree to reduce or eliminate customs tariff and non tariff barriers on substantial trade between them. FTAs, normally cover trade in goods (such as agricultural or industrial products) or trade in services (such as banking, construction, trading etc.). FTAs can also cover… Read more »

What is the relationship between Multilateralism (WTO) and FTAs?

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Article 1 of GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) which enunciates the most favoured nation (MFN) principle of WTO states that “any advantage, favour, privilege, or immunity granted by any contracting party to any product originating in or destined for any other country shall be accorded immediately and unconditionally to the like product originating… Read more »

What is the role of the International Trade Commission in AD/CVD investigations?

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The International Trade Commission determines whether the domestic industry is suffering material injury as a result of the imports of the dumped or subsidized products. The International Trade Commission considers all relevant economic factors, including the domestic industry’s output, sales, market share, employment, and profits. For further information on the International Trade Commission’s injury investigation. Both… Read more »

How is Dumping or Subsidization remedied?

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If a U.S. industry believes that it is being injured by unfair competition through dumping or subsidization of a foreign product, it may request the imposition of antidumping or countervailing duties by filing a petition with both Import Administration and the United States International Trade Commission. Import Administration investigates foreign producers and governments to determine… Read more »

What is Compliance?

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Compliance: The United States is a party in over 250 trade agreements. But trade agreements are only paper unless foreign governments comply with their obligations. MAC addresses compliance problems quickly and aggressively. Once a problem is identified, we organize a team to outline and implement a solution. Trademark – A trademark (popularly known as brand name)… Read more »

What is Market Access?

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Market Access: U.S. exporters sometimes encounter trade barriers. For instance, a country may only allow products to enter the most inconvenient port or a country may treat imported goods differently than domestic goods. MAC receives calls from businesses, associations, and international U.S. commercial offices, and we then map out a plan to solve the problem. Trademark… Read more »

What is the difference between Market Access and Compliance?

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Difference between Market Access and Compliance Market Access: U.S. exporters sometimes encounter trade barriers. For instance, a country may only allow products to enter the most inconvenient port or a country may treat imported goods differently than domestic goods. MAC receives calls from businesses, associations, and international U.S. commercial offices, and we then map out a… Read more »

What are some common trade problems MAC can help U.S. businesses overcome?

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MAC provides help with the following common trade problems through the Trade Compliance Center – Tariff and customs barriers Service barriers Standards, testing, labeling, or certification barriers Rules of origin Government procurement contract barriers Intellectual property protection problems Excessive government requirements Excessive testing or licensing fees Bribery Investment Trademark – A trademark (popularly known as… Read more »