What is the Madrid Agreement?

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The Madrid Agreement was adopted on April 14, 1891 to facilitate protection of a trademark or service mark in several countries by means of a single international registration. As on July 15, 1999, 54 countries are party to this Agreement mainly belonging to Europe, countries of Africa and four countries in the Far East namely,… Read more »

What is the term of a registered trademark?

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The initial registration of a trademark shall be for a period of ten years but may be renewed from time to time for an unlimited period by payment of the renewal fees. A trademark is a sign or mark that is used to distinguish the goods or services of one enterprise from those of another… Read more »

How are the terms “Certification Trademarks” and “Collective Marks” defined in the Trademark Act?

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Certification trade mark means a mark capable of distinguishing the goods or services in connection with which it is used in the course of trade which are certified by the proprietor of the mark in respect of origin, material, mode of manufacture of goods or performance of services, quality, accuracy or other characteristics from goods… Read more »

What is the meaning of “Service” in the Trademark Act 1999?

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Service means service of any description which is made available potential users and includes the provision of services in connection with business of any industrial or commercial matters such as banking, communication, education, financing, insurance, chit funds, real estate, transport, storage, material treatment, processing, supply of electrical or other energy, boarding, lodging, entertainment, amusement, construction,… Read more »

What are “Well-known Trademarks” and “Associated Trademarks”?

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Well-known trademark in relation to any goods or services, means a mark which has become so to the substantial segment of the public which uses such goods or receives such services that the use of such mark in relation to other goods or services would be likely to be taken as indicating a connection in… Read more »

What is a PCT?

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PCT stands for Prior Informed Consent. PCT abbreviated, from the Patent Cooperation Treaty. PCT is an International treaty, which provides facility to the applicant to file a single patent application and designate the countries in which he/she wants to protect his IP rights. Thus a single patent application is filed for the purpose of an international search… Read more »

What are the process to applying for a Patent?

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The first step that people usually take in applying for a patent is to file a preliminary application in one country. When the application is filed, the date of application is recorded and this is called the “priority date”. The first application can be quite basic and does not have to include a set of… Read more »

What are Intellectual property rights (IPRs) and how do they grant protection to the owner of an IPR?

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Intellectual property rights or IPRs are rights given to people over the creations of their minds. These rights are given by society through the State as an incentive to produce and disseminate ideas and expressions that will benefit society as a whole. Unlike Fundamental Rights of citizens which are guaranteed by the Constitution of a country,… Read more »

What are the importance of IPR?

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IPR stands for Intellectual Property Rights. Intellectual Property is the Property, which has been created by exercise of Intellectual Faculty. It is the result of persons Intellectual Activities. Thus Intellectual Property refers to creation of mind such as inventions, designs for industrial articles, literary, artistic work, symbols which are ultimately used in commerce. Intellectual Property rights allow… Read more »