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An Act to consolidate and amend the law relating to the government of the Air Force.

BE it enacted by Parliament as follows,-

CHAPTER IPRELIMINARY

 

1. Short title and commencement. (1) This Act may be called the
Air Force Act, 1950.

(2) It shall come into force on such date2 as the Central
Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint in this behalf.

2.Persons subject to this Act.

2. Persons subject to this Act. The following persons shall be subject to this Act wherever they may be, namely: –

(a) officers and warrant officers of the Air Force;

(b) persons enrolled under this Act ;

3 (c) persons belonging to the Regular Air Force Reserve or the Air Defence Reserve or the Auxiliary Air Force, in the circumstances specified in section 26 of the Reserve and
Auxiliary Air Forces Act, 1952 ;] (62 of 1952.)

(d) persons not otherwise subject to air force law, who on active service, in camp, on the march, or at any frontier post specified by the Central Government by notification in this behalf, are employed by, or are in the service of, or are followers of, or accompany any portion of the Air Force.

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1 The Act has been extended to Goa. Daman and Diu by Reg. 12 of
1962, s. 3 and Sch. to Dadra and Nagar Haveli(w.e.f. 1-7-1955) by Reg.
6 of 1963, s. 2 and Sch. I ; to Pondicherry (w.e.f. 1-10-1963) by
Reg. 7 of 1963, s. 3 and Sch. I.

and to the State of Sikkim vide Notification No. S.R.O. 25(E), dated 20-4-1976 (w.e.f. 1-5-1976).

2 22nd July, 1950, see Notification No. S.R.O. 124, dated 22nd
July, 1950, Gazette of India, Pt. II, See. 4, P. 87.3 Subs. by Act 62 of 1952, s. 35.———————————————————————-

148.3.Termination of application of the Act.

3. Termination of application of the Act. Every person subject to this Act under clauses (a) to (c) of section 2 shall remain so subject until duly retired, discharged, released, removed, dismissed or cashiered from the service.

4.Definitions.

4. Definitions. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires,-

(i) “active service”, as applied to a person subject to this Act, means the time during which such person-

(a) is attached to, or forms part of, a force which is engaged in operations against an enemy, or

(b) is engaged in air force operations in, or is on the line of march to, a country or place wholly or partly occupied by an enemy, or

(c) is attached to, or forms part of, a force which is in military occupation of any foreign country ;

(ii) “aircraft” includes aeroplanes, balloons, kite balloons, airships, gliders or other machines for flying ;

(iii) “aircraft material” includes any engines, fittings, guns, gear, instruments or apparatus for use in connection with aircraft, and any of its components and accessories and petrol oil, and any other substance used for providing motive power for planes;

(iv) “Air Force” means officers and airmen who by their com-
mission, warrant, terms of enrolment or otherwise, are liable to render continuously for a term air force service to the
Union in every part of the world or any specified part of the world, including persons belonging to 1[any Air Force Reserve or the Auxiliary Air Force] when called out on permanent service ;

(v) “air force custody” means the arrest or confinement of a person according to the usages of the service and includes militarly or naval custody ;

(vi) “air force law” means the law enacted by this Act and the rules made thereunder and includes the usages of the service ;

(vii) “air force reward” includes any gratuity or annuity for long service or good conduct, badge pay or pension, and any other air force pecuniary reward;

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1 Subs. by Act 62 of 1952, s.35, for “the Indian Air Force
Volunteer Reserve”.
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149.(viii)”airman” means any person subject to this Act other than an officer ;

(ix) “air officer” means any officer of the Air Force above the rank of group captain;

(x) “air signal” means any signal intended for the guidance of aircraft, whether given by flag, ground signal, light, wind indicator or in any manner whatsoever ;

(xi) “Chief Legal Adviser” means a person appointed as such by 1 [the Chief of the Air Staff] to give advice on matters relating to air force law and to perform such other duties of a legal character as may arise in connection therewith ;

(xii) “civil offence” means an offence which is triable by a criminal court ;

(xiii) “civil prison” means any jail or place used for the detention of any criminal prisoner under the Prisons Act,
1894, (9 of 1894.) or under any other law for the time being in force;

2[(xiv) “Chief of the Air Staff” means the officer commanding the Air Force;]

(xv) “commanding officer” used in relation to a person subject to this Act, means the officer for the time being in command of the unit or detachment to which such person belongs or is attached;

(xvi) “court-martial” means a court-martial held under this
Act;

(xvii)”criminal court” means a court of ordinary criminal justice in any part of India 3 * * * ;

(xvii) “enemy ” includes all armed mutineers, armed rebels, armed rioters, pirates and any person in arms against whom it is the duty of any person subject to air force law to act ;

(xix) “the force” means the regular Army, Navy and Air Force or any part of any one or more of them;

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1 Subs. by Act 19 of 1955, s. 2 and Sch.
2 Subs. by s. 2 and Sch., ibid., for the former clause.

3 The words “other than the State of Jammu and Kashmir” omitted by Act 13 of 1975, s. 2 (w.e.f. 25-1-1975).

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150

(xx) “non-commissioned officer” means a person holding a non-commissioned rank or an acting non-commissioned rank in the Air-Force, and includes any person holding a non-
commissioned rank or an acting non-commissioned rank in 1[any
Air Force Reserve or the Auxiliary Air Force] when subject to this Act;

(xxi) ” notification ” means a notification published in the
Official Gazette ;

(xxii) “offence” means any act or omission punishable under this Act, and includes a civil offence, as hereinbefore defined;

(xxiii) “officer” means a person commissioned, gazetted or in pay as an officer in the Air Force, and includes-

(a) an officer of 1[any Air Force Reserve or the
Auxiliary Air Force who is for the time being subject to this Act;

(b) in relation to a person subject to this Act when serving under such conditions as may be prescribed, an officer of the regular Army or the Navy,

but does not include a junior commissioned officer, warrant officer, petty officer or non-commissioned officer;

(xxiv) ” prescribed ” means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

(xxv) ” provost-marshal ” means a person appointed as such under section 108 and includes any of his deputies or assistants or any other person legally exercising authority under him or on his behalf ;

(xxvi) ” regulation ” includes a regulation made under this Act;

(xxvii) ” superior officer “, when used in relation to a person subject to this Act, includes a warrant officer and a noncommissioned officer, and as regards persons serving under such conditions as may be prescribed, an officer, junior commissioned officer, warrant officer, petty officer and non-
commissioned officer of the regular Army or the Navy;

(xxviii) “unit” includes-

(a) any body of officers and. airmen for which a separate authorised establishment exists

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1Subs. by Act 62 of 1952, s. 35 for “the Indian Air Force
Volunteer Reserve”.

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150A

(b) any separate body of persons subject to this Act employed on any service and not attached to a unit as aforesaid;

(c) any other separate body of persons composed wholly or partly of persons subject to this Act, and specified as a unit by the Central Government;

(xxix) ” warrant officer ” means a person appointed, gazetted or in pay as a warrant officer of the Air Force and includes an acting warrant officer, a master warrant officer, and a warrant officer of 1[any Air Force Reserve or the
Auxiliary Air Force] who is for the time being subject to this Act ;

(xxx) 2[all words (except the word “India”)] and expressions used herein and defined in the Indian Penal Code ( 45 of
1860.) and not hereinbefore defined, shall be deemed to have the meanings respectively assigned to them by that Code

CHAPTER IISPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR THE APPLICATION OF ACT IN CERTAIN CASES

 


5. Application of Act to certain forces under the Central
Government. (1) The Central Government may, by notification, apply, with or without modifications, all or any of the provisions of this
Act to any force raised and maintained in India and suspend the operation

 

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1 Subs. by Act 62 of 1952, s. 35, for “the Indian Air Force
Volunteer Reserve”.

2 Subs. by Act 13 of 1975, s. 2, for “all words” (w.e.f.25-1-
1975).

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151.
of any other enactment for the time being applicable to the said force.

(2) The provisions of this Act so applied shall have effect in respect of persons belonging to the said force as they have effect in respect of persons subject to this Act holding in the Air Force the same or equivalent rank as the aforesaid persons hold for the time being in the said force.

(3) The provisions of this Act so applied shall also have effect in respect of persons who are employed by, or are in the service of, or are followers of, or accompany any portion of the said force as they have effect in respect of persons subject to this Act under clause (d) of section 2.(4) While any of the provisions of this Act apply to the said force, the Central Government may, by notification, direct by what authority any jurisdiction, powers or duties incident to the operation of these provisions shall be exercised or performed in respect of the said force.

6.Special provisions as to rank in certain cases.

6. Special provisions as to rank in certain cases. (1) The
Central Government may, by notification, direct that any persons or class of persons subject to this Act under clause (d) of section 2, shall be so subject as officers, warrant officers or non-commissioned officers, and may authorise any officer to give a like direction and to cancel such direction.

(2) All persons subject to this Act other than officers, warrant officers and non-commissioned officers shall, if they are not persons in respect of whom notification or direction under sub-section (1) is in force, be deemed to be of rank inferior to that of a non-commis-
sioned officer.

7.Commanding officer of persons subject to air force law under clause(d) of section 2.7. Commanding officer of persons subject to air force law under clause (d) of section 2. (1) Every person subject to this Act, under clause (d) of section 2, shall, for the purposes of this Act, be deemed to be under the commanding officer of the unit, or detachment, if any, to which he is attached, and if he is not so attached under the command of any officer who may for the time being be named as his commanding officer by the officer commanding the force with which such person may for the time being be serving, or of any other prescribed officer, or, if no such officer is named or prescribed, under the command of the said officer commanding the force.

(2) An officer commanding a force shall not place a person subject to this Act under clause (d) of section 2 under the command of an officer of official rank inferior to that of such person if there is present at the place where such person is any officer of higher rank under whose command he can be placed.

152.8.Officers exercising powers in certain cases.

8. Officers exercising powers in certain cases. (1) Whenever persons subject to this Act are serving under an officer commanding any air force formation not in this section specifically named, and being, in the opinion of the Central Government, not less than a squadron, the said Government may prescribe the officer by whom the powers which, under this Act, may be exercised by air officers in charge of commands, and officers commanding groups, wings and squadrons shall, as regards such persons, be exercised.

(2) The Central Government may confer such powers either absolutely, or subject to such restrictions, reservations, exceptions and conditions as it may think fit.

9. Power to declare persons to be on active service.
Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (i) of section 4, the
Central Government may, by notification, declare that any person or class of persons subject to this Act shall, with reference to any area in which they may be serving or with reference to any provision of this Act or of any other law for the time being in force, be deemed to be on active service within the meaning of this Act.

CHAPTER IIICOMMISSION, APPOINTMENT AND ENROLMENT

 

10. Commission and appointment. The President may grant, to such person as he thinks fit a commission as an officer or appoint any person as a warrant officer of the Air Force.

11.Ineligibility of aliens for enrolment.

11. Ineligibility of aliens for enrolment. No person who is not a citizen of India shall, except with the consent of the Central
Government signified in writing, be enrolled in the Air Force:

Provided that nothing contained in this section shall bar the enrolment of the subjects of Nepal in the Air Force.

12.Ineligibility of females for enrolment or employment.

12. Ineligibility of females for enrolment or employment. No female shall be eligible for enrolment or employment in the Air Force, except in such corps, department, branch or other body forming part of, or attached to any portion of, the Air Force as the Central
Government may, by notification, specify in this behalf :

Provided that nothing contained in this section shall affect the provisions of any law for the time being in force providing for the raising and maintenance of any service auxiliary to the Air Force or any branch thereof in which females are eligible for enrolment or employment.

13.Procedure before enrolling officer.

13. Procedure before enrolling officer. Upon the appearance before the prescribed enrolling officer of any person desirous of being enrolled, the enrolling officer shall read and explain to him, or cause to be read and explained to him in his presence, the conditions of the service for which he is to be enrolled ;

153.and shall put to him the questions set forth in the prescribed form of enrolment, and shall, after having cautioned him that if he makes a false answer to any such question he will be liable to punishment under this Act, record or cause to be recorded his answer to each such question.

14.Mode of enrolment.

14. Mode of enrolment. If, after complying with the provisions of section 13, the enrolling officer is satisfied that the person desirous of being enrolled fully understands the questions put to him and consents to the conditions of service, and if such officer perceives no impediment, he shall sign and shall also cause such person to sign the enrolment paper, and such person shall thereupon be deemed to be enrolled.

15.Validity of enrolment.

15. Validity of enrolment. Every person who has for the space of three months been in receipt of pay as a person enrolled under this
Act and been borne on the rolls of any unit shall be deemed to have been duly enrolled, and shall not be entitled to claim his discharge on the ground of any irregularity or illegality in his enrolment or on any other ground whatsoever ; and if any person, in receipt of such pay and borne on the rolls as aforesaid, claims his discharge before the expiry of three months from his enrolment, no such irregularity or illegality or other ground shall, until he is discharged in pursuance of his claim, affect his position as an enrolled person under this Act or invalidate any proceedings, act or thing taken or done prior to his discharge.

16. Persons to be attested. The following persons shall be attested, namely:–

(a) all persons enrolled as combatants;

(b) all persons selected to hold a non-commissioned or acting non-commissioned rank; and

(c) all other persons subject to this Act as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

17.Mode of attestation.

17. Mode of attestation. (1) When a person who is to be attested is reported fit for duty, or has completed the prescribed period of probation, an oath or affirmation shall be administered to him in the prescribed form by his commanding officer in front of his unit or such portion thereof as may be present, or by any other prescribed person.

(2) The form of oath or affirmation prescribed under this section shall contain a promise that the person to be attested will bear true allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established, and that he will serve in the Air Force and go wherever he is ordered by land, sea of air, and that he will obey all commands of any officer set over him, even to the peril of his life.

(3) The fact of an enrolled person having taken the oath or affirmation directed by this section to be taken shall be entered on his enrolment paper, and authenticated by the signature of the officer administering the oath or affirmation.

CHAPTER IV.CONDITIONS OF SERVICE.

 

18. Tenure of service under the Act. Every person subject to this Act shall hold office during the pleasure of the President.

19.Termination of service by Central Government.

19. Termination of service by Central Government. Subject to the provisions of this Act and the rules and regulations made thereunder, the Central Government may dismiss, or remove from the service any person subject to this Act.

20.Dismissal, removal or reduction by Chief of the Air Staff and otherofficers.

20. Dismissal, removal or reduction by Chief of the Air Staff and other officers. (1) 1[The Chief of the Air Staff] may dismiss or remove from the service any person subject to this Act other than an officer.

(2) 1[The Chief of the Air Staff] I may reduce to a lower grade or rank or the ranks, any warrant officer or any non-commissioned officer.

(3) An officer having power not less than an air officer in charge of a command or equivalent commander or any prescribed officer may dismiss or remove from the service any person serving under his command other than an officer or a warrant officer.

(4) On active service, an officer commanding the air forces in the field may reduce to a lower rank or to the ranks any warrant officer or non-commissioned officer under his command.

(5) 1[The Chief of the Air Staff] or an officer specified in sub-section (3) may reduce to a lower class in the ranks any airman other than a warrant officer or non-commissioned officer.

(6) The commanding officer of an acting non-commissioned officer may order him to revert to his substantive rank as a non-commissioned officer, or if he has no such substantive rank, to the ranks.

(7) The exercise of any powers under this section shall be subject to the other provisions contained in this Act and the rules and regulations made thereunder.

21.Power to modify certain fundamental rights in their application topersons subject to this Act.

21. Power to modify certain fundamental rights in their application to persons subject to this Act. Subject to the provisions of any law for the time being in force relating to the Air Force or to any branch thereof, the Central Government may, by notification, make rules2 restricting in such manner and to such extent as may be specified the right of any person subject to this Act-

(a) to be a member of, or to be associated in any way with, any trade union or labour union, or any class of trade or labour unions or any society, institution or association, or any class of societies, institutions or associations ;

(b) to attend or address any meeting or to take part in any demonstration organised by any body of persons for any political or other purposes ;

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1 Subs. by Act 19 of 1955, s. 2 and Sch., for “the Commander-in-
Chief”.

2 See rules 3, 4 and 5 of the Air Force Act Rules, 1950 ; Gazette of India Extraordinary 1950, Pt, II, sec. 4, p. 7.———————————————————————–

155.(c) to communicate with the press or to publish or cause to be published any book, letter or other document.

22.Retirement, release or discharge.

22. Retirement, release or discharge. Any person subject to this Act may be retired, released or discharged from the service by such authority and in such manner as may be prescribed.

23.Certificate on termination of service.

23. Certificate on termination of service. Every warrant officer, or enrolled person who is dismissed, removed, discharged, retired or released from the service shall be furnished by his commanding officer with a certificate, in the language which is the mother tongue of such person and also in the English language setting forth-

(a) the authority terminating his service;

(b) the cause for such termination ; and

(c) the full period of his service in the Air Force.

24.Discharge or dismissal when out of India.

24. Discharge or dismissal when out of India. (1) Any person enrolled under this Act who is entitled under the conditions of his enrolment to be discharged, or whose discharge is ordered by competent authority, and who, when he is so entitled or ordered to be discharged, is serving out of India, and requests to be sent to India, shall, before being discharged, be sent to India with all convenient speed.

(2) Any person enrolled under this Act who is dismissed from the service and who, when he is so dismissed, is serving out of India, shall be sent to India with all convenient speed.

(3) Where any such person as is mentioned in sub-section (2) is sentenced to dismissal combined with any other punishment, such other punishment, or, in the case of a sentence of transportation, imprisonment or detention, a portion of such sentence, may be inflicted before he is sent to India.

(4) For the purposes of this section, the word ” discharge ”
shall include release, and the word ” dismissal ” shall include removal.

CHAPTER VSERVICE PRIVILEGES

 

25.Authorised deductions only to be made from pay.

25. Authorised deductions only to be made from pay. The pay of every person subject to this Act due to him as such under any regulation, for the time being in force, shall be paid with. out any deduction other than the deductions authorised by or under this or any other Act.

26.Remedy of aggrieved airmen.

26. Remedy of aggrieved airmen. (1) Any airman who deems himself wronged by any superior or other officer may, if not attached to a unit or detachment, complain to the officer under whose command or orders he is serving; and may, if attached to a unit or detachment, complain to the officer commanding the same.

156.(2) When the officer complained against is the officer to whom any complaint should, under sub-section (1), be preferred, the aggrieved airman may complain to such officers next superior officer, and if he thinks himself wronged by such superior officer, he may complain to 1[the Chief of the Air Staff].

(3) Every officer receiving any such complaint shall make as complete an investigation into it as may be possible for giving full redress to the complainant; or, when necessary, refer the complaint to superior authority.

(4) Every such complaint shall be preferred in such manner as may from time to time be specified by the proper authority.

(5) The Central Government may revise any decision by 1[the
Chief of the Air Staff] under sub-section (2), but subject-thereto, the decision of 1[the Chief of the Air Staff] shall be final.

27.Remedy of aggrieved officers.

27. Remedy of aggrieved officers. Any officer who deems himself wronged by his commanding officer or any superior officer and who on due application made to his commanding officer does not receive the redress to which he considers himself entitled, may complain to the
Central Government in such manner as may from time to time be specified by the proper authority.

28.Immunity from attachment.

28. Immunity from attachment. The arms, clothes, equipment, accoutrements or necessaries of any person subject to this Act shall not be seized, and the pay and allowances of any such person or any part thereof shall not be attached, by direction of any civil or revenue court or any revenue officer, in satisfaction of any decree or order enforceable against him.

29.Immunity from arrest for debt.

29. Immunity from arrest for debt. (1) No person subject to this
Act shall, so long as he belongs to the Forces, be liable to be arrested for debt under any process issued by, or by the authority of, any civil or revenue court or revenue officer.

(2) The judge of any such court or the said officer may examine into any complaint made by such person or his superior officer of the arrest of such person contrary to the provisions of this section, and may, by warrant under his hand, discharge the person, and award reasonable costs to the complainant, who may recover those costs in like manner as he might have recovered costs awarded to him by a decree against the person obtaining the process.

(3) For the recovery of such costs no court-fee shall be payable by the complainant.

30.

Immunity of persons attending courts-martial from arrest.

30. Immunity of persons attending courts-martial from arrest.
(1) No presiding officer or member of a court-martial, no judge advocate, no party to any proceeding before a court-martial,

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1 Subs. by Act 19 of 1955, s.2 and Sch., for “the Commander-in-Chief”.
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157.or his legal practitioner or agent, and no witness acting in obedience to a summons to attend a court-martial shall, while proceeding to, attending, or returning from, a court-martial, be liable to arrest under civil or revenue process.

(2) If any such person is arrested under any such process, he may be discharged by order of the court-martial.

31.Privileges of reservists.

31. Privileges of reservists. Every person belonging to 1[any
Air Force Reserve or the Auxiliary Air Force] shall, when called out for, or engaged in, or returning from, training or service, be entitled to all the privileges accorded by sections 28 and 29 to a person subject to this Act.

32.Priority in respect of Air Force personnels litigation.

32. Priority in respect of Air Force personnels litigation. (1)
On the presentation to any court by or on behalf of any person subject to this Act of a certificate, from the proper air force authority, of leave of absence having been granted to or applied for by him for the purpose of prosecuting or defending any suit or other proceeding in such court, the court shall, on the application of such person, arrange, so far as may be possible, for the hearing and final disposal of such suit or other proceeding within the period of the leave so granted or applied for.

(2) The certificate from the proper air force authority shall state the first and last day of the leave or intended leave, and set forth a description of the case with respect to which the leave was granted or applied for.

(3) No fee shall be payable to the court in respect of the presentation of any such certificate, or of any application by or on behalf of any such person, for priority for the hearing of his case.

(4) Where the court is unable to arrange for the hearing and final disposal of the suit or other proceeding within the period of such leave or intended leave as aforesaid, it shall record its reasons for its inability to do so, and shall cause a copy thereof to be furnished to such person on his application without any payment whatever by him in respect either of the application for such copy or of the copy itself.

(5) If in any case a question arises as to the proper air force authority qualified to grant such certificate as aforesaid, such question shall be at once referred by the court to an officer having power not less than a group commander or equivalent commander whose decision shall be final.

33.Saving of rights and privileges under other laws.

33. Saving of rights and privileges under other laws. The rights and privileges specified in the preceding sections of this
Chapter shall be in addition to any others conferred on persons subject to this Act or on members of the regular Army, Navy and Air
Force generally by any other law for the time being in force.

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1 Subs. by s. 35, Act 62 of 1952, for “the Air Force Reserve”.

CHAPTER VIOFFENCES

 

34. Offence in relation to the enemy and punishable with death.
Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) shamefully abandons or delivers up any garrison, fortress, post, place or guard, committed to his charge, or which it is his duty to defend, or uses any means to compel or induce any commanding officer or other person to commit the said act; or

(b) intentionally uses any means to compel or induce any person subject to military, naval or air force law to abstain from acting against the enemy, or to discourage such person from acting against the enemy ; or

(c) in the presence of the enemy, shamefully casts away his arms, ammunition, tools or equipment or misbehaves in such manner as to show cowardice; or

(d) treacherously holds correspondence with, or communicates intelligence to, the enemy or any person in arms against the Union ; or

(e) directly or indirectly assists the enemy with money, arms, ammunition, stores or supplies ;

(f) or treacherously or through cowardice sends a flag of truce to the enemy ; or

(g) in time of war or during any air force operation, intentionally occasions a false alarm in action, camp or quarters or spreads reports calculated to create alarm or despondency ; or

(h) in time of action leaves his commanding officer or his post, guard, piquet, patrol or party without being regularly relieved or without leave ; or

(i) having been made a prisoner of war, voluntarily serves with or aids the enemy ; or

(j) knowingly harbours or protects an enemy not being a prisoner ; or

(k) being a sentry in time of war or alarm, sleeps upon his post or is intoxicated ; or

(l) knowingly does any act calculated to imperil the success of the military, naval or air forces of India or any forces co-operating therewith or any part of such forces; or

159.(m) treacherously or shamefully causes the capture or destruction by the enemy of any aircraft belonging to the
Forces; or

(n) treacherously uses any false air signal or alters or interferes with any air signal ; or

(o) when ordered by his superior officer or otherwise under orders to carry out any air force operations, treacherously or shamefully fails to use his utmost exertions to carry such orders into effect ;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer death or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

35.Offences in relation to the enemy and not punishable with death.

35. Offences in relation to the enemy and not punishable with death. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) is taken prisoner, by want of due precaution, or through disobedience of orders, or wilful neglect of duty, or having been taken prisoner, fails to rejoin his service when able to do so ; or

(b) without due authority holds correspondence with or communicates intelligence to the enemy ; or having come by the knowledge of any such correspondence or communication wilfully omits to discover it immediately to his commanding or other superior officer ; or

(c) without due authority sends a Rag of truce to the enemy;
or

(d) negligently causes the capture or destruction by the enemy of any aircraft belonging to the Government ; or

(e) when ordered by his superior officer, or otherwise under orders to carry out any warlike operations in the air, negligently or through other default fails to use his utmost exertions to carry such orders into effect ;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to fourteen years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

36.Offences punishable more severely on active service than at othertimes.

36. Offences punishable more severely on active service than at other times. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) forces a safeguard, or forces or uses criminal force to a sentry ; or

(b) breaks into any house or other place in search of plunder or

(c) being a sentry sleeps upon his post, or is intoxicated
; or

160

(d) without orders from his superior officer leaves his guard, piquet, patrol or post ; or

(e) intentionally or through neglect occasions a false alarm in camp or quarters ; or spreads reports calculated to create unnecessary alarm or despondency ; or

(f) makes known the parole, watchword or countersign to any person not entitled to receive it ; or knowingly gives a parole, watchword or countersign different from what he received ; or

(g) without due authority alters or interferes with any air signal ;

shall, on conviction by court-martial,

if he commits any such offence when on active service, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to fourteen years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned; and

if he commits any such offence when not on active service, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

37.Mutiny.

37. Mutiny. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) begins, incites, causes, or conspires with any other persons to cause, any mutiny in the military, naval or air forces of India or any forces co-operating therewith ; or

(b) joins in any such mutiny; or

(c) being present at any such mutiny, does not use his utmost endeavours to suppress the same ; or

(d) knowing or having reason to believe in the existence of any such mutiny, or of any intention to commit such mutiny or any such conspiracy, does not, without delay, give information thereof to his commanding or other superior officer ; or

(e) endeavours to seduce any person in the military, naval or air forces of India from his duty or allegiance to the
Union;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer death or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

38.Desertion and aiding desertion.

38. Desertion and aiding desertion. (1) Any person subject to this Act who deserts or attempts to desert the service shall on conviction by court-martial,

if he commits the offence on active service or when under orders for active service, be liable to suffer death or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned; and

161.if he commits the offence under any other circumstances, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

(2) Any person subject to this Act who knowingly harbours any such deserter shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

(3) Any person subject to this Act who, being cognizant of any desertion or attempt at desertion of a person subject to this Act, does not forthwith give notice to his own or some other superior officer, or take any steps in his power to cause such person to be apprehended, shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

39.Absence without leave.

39. Absence without leave. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) absents himself without leave; or

(b) without sufficient cause overstays leave granted to him
; or

(c) being on leave of absence and having received information from proper authority that any unit or detachment, to which he belongs, has been ordered on active service, fails, without sufficient cause, to rejoin without delay ; or

(d) without sufficient cause fails to appear at the time fixed, at the parade or place appointed for exercise or duty
; or

(e) when on parade, or on the line of march, without sufficient cause or without leave from his superior officer, quits the parade or line of march ; or

(f) when in camp or elsewhere, is found beyond any limits fixed, or in any place prohibited, by any general, local or other order, without a pass or written leave from his superior officer ; or

(g) without leave from his superior officer or without due cause, absents himself from any school when duly ordered to attend there;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

40.

Striking or threatening superior officer.

40. Striking or threatening superior officer. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) uses criminal force to, or assaults his superior officer
; or

162.(b) uses threatening language to such officer ; or

(c) uses insubordinate language to such officer;

shall, on conviction by court-martial,

if such officer is at the time in the execution of his office or, if the offence is committed on active service, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to fourteen years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned ; and

in other cases, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned:

Provided that in the case of an offence specified in clause (c), the imprisonment shall not exceed five years.

41.Disobedience to superior officer.

41. Disobedience to superior officer. (1) Any person subject to this Act who disobeys in such manner as to show a wilful defiance of authority any lawful command given personally by his superior officer in the execution of his office whether the same is given orally or in writing or by signal or otherwise shall, on conviction by court-
martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to fourteen years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

(2) Any person subject to this Act who disobeys any lawful com-
mand given by his superior officer shall, on conviction by court-
martial,

if he commits such offence when on active service, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to fourteen years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned;
and

if he commits such offence when not on active service, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

42.Insubordination and obstruction.

42. Insubordination and obstruction. Any person subject to this
Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) being concerned in any quarrel, affray or disorder, refuses to obey any officer, though of inferior rank, who orders him into arrest, or uses criminal force to or assaults any such officer ; or

(b) uses criminal force to, or assaults any person, whether subject to this Act or not, in whose custody he is lawfully placed, and whether he is or is not his superior officer or

163.(c) resists an escort whose duty it is to apprehend him or to have him in charge ; or

(d) breaks out of barracks, camp or quarters ; or

(e) neglects to obey any general, local or other order ; or

(f) impedes the provost-marshal or any person lawfully acting on his behalf or, when called upon, refuses to assist in the execution of his duty a provost-marshal or any person lawfully acting on his behalf ; or

(g) uses criminal force to or assaults any person bringing provisions or supplies to the Forces ;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend, in the case of the offences specified in clauses (d) and (e) to two years, and in the case of the offences specified in the other clauses to ten years, or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

43.Fraudulent enrolment.

43. Fraudulent enrolment. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) without having obtained a regular discharge from the
Air Force or otherwise fulfilled the conditions enabling him to enrol or enter, enrols himself in, or enters the said force or any part of the military or the naval forces of
India ; or

(b) is concerned in the enrolment in any part of the
Forces, of any person when he knows or has reason to believe such person to be so circumstanced that by enrolling he commits an offence against this Act ;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

44.False answers on enrolment.

44. False answers on enrolment. Any person having become subject to this Act who is discovered to have made at the time of enrolment a wilfully false answer to any question set forth in the prescribed form of enrolment which has been put to him by the enrolling officer before whom he appears for the purpose of being enrolled, shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

45.Unbecoming conduct.

45. Unbecoming conduct. Any officer or warrant officer who behaves in a manner unbecoming his position and the character expected of him shall, on conviction by court-martial, if he is an officer, be liable to be cashiered or to suffer such less punishment as is in this
Act mentioned ; and if

164.he is a warrant officer, be liable to be dismissed or to suffer such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

46.Certain forms of disgraceful conduct.

46. Certain forms of disgraceful conduct. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) is guilty of any disgraceful conduct of a cruel, indecent or unnatural kind; or

(b) malingers, or feigns, or produces disease or infirmity in himself, or intentionally delays his cure or aggravates his disease or infirmity ; or

(c) with intent to render himself or any other person unfit for service, voluntarily causes hurt to himself or that person ;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

47.Ill-treating a subordinate.

47. Ill-treating a subordinate. Any officer, warrant officer or non-commissioned officer, who uses criminal force to or otherwise ill-
treats any person subject to this Act, being his subordinate in rank or position, shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

48.Intoxication.

48. Intoxication. (1) Any person subject to this Act who is found in a state of intoxication, whether on duty or not, shall, on conviction by court-martial, if he is an officer, be liable to be cashiered or to suffer such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned; and if he is not an officer, be liable, subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

(2) Where an offence of being intoxicated is committed by a person other than an officer when not on active service or not on duty, the period of imprisonment awarded shall not exceed six months.

49.Permitting escape of person in custody.

49. Permitting escape of person in custody. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) when in command of a guard, picquet, patrol or post, releases without proper authority, whether wilfully or without reasonable excuse, any person committed to his charge or refuses to receive any prisoner or person so committed; or

(b) wilfully or without reasonable excuse allows to escape any person who is committed to his charge, or whom it is his duty to keep or guard ;

165.shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable, if he has acted wilfully, to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to fourteen years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned ;
and if he has not acted wilfully, to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or such less punishment as is in this
Act mentioned.

50.

Irregularity in connection with arrest or confinement.

50. Irregularity in connection with arrest or confinement. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) unnecessarily detains a person in arrest or confinement without bringing him to trial, or fails to bring his case before the proper authority for investigation ; or

(b) having committed a person to air force custody fails without reasonable cause to deliver at the time of such committal, or as soon as practicable, and in any case within forty-eight hours thereafter, to the officer or other person into whose custody the person arrested is committed, an account in writing signed by himself of the offence with which the person so committed is charged ;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

51.Escape from custody.

51. Escape from custody. Any person subject to this Act who, being in lawful custody, escapes or attempts to escape, shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

52.Offences in respect of property.

52. Offences in respect of property. Any person subject to this
Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) commits theft of any property belonging to the
Government, or to any military, naval or air force mess, band or institution, or to any person subject to military, naval or air force law; or

(b) dishonestly misappropriates or converts to his own use any such property ; or

(c) commits criminal breach of trust in respect of any such property ; or

(d) dishonestly receives or retains any such property in respect of which any of the offences under clauses (a), (b)
and (c) has been committed, knowing or having reason to believe the commission of such offence; or

(e) wilfully destroys or injures any property of the
Government entrusted to him; or

166.(f) does any other thing with intent to defraud, or to cause wrongful gain to one person or wrongful loss to another person
;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

53.Extortion and corruption.

53. Extortion and corruption. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) commits extortion; or

(b) without proper authority exacts from any person money, provisions or service ;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

54.Making away with equipment.

54. Making away with equipment. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) makes away with, or is concerned in making away with, any arms, ammunition, equipment, instruments, tools, clothing or any other thing being the property of the Government issued to him for his use or entrusted to him ; or

(b) loses by neglect anything mentioned in clause (a) ; or

(c) sells, pawns, destroys or defaces any medal or decoration granted to him;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend, in the case of the offences specified in clause (a) to ten years, and in the case of the offences specified in the other clauses to five years, or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

54A.

54A Relief of tax on capital gains on transfer of property held under trust for charitable or religious purposes or by certain institutions.

55.Injury to property.

55. Injury to property. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) destroys or injures any property mentioned in clause
(a) of section 54, or any property belonging to any military, naval or air force mess, band or institution, or to any per-
son subject to military, naval or air force law, or serving with, or attached to, the Air Force ; or

(b) commits any act which causes damage to, or destruction of, any property of the Government by fire; or

(c) kills, injures, makes away with, ill-treats or loses any animal entrusted to him ;

shall, on conviction by court- martial, be liable, if he has acted wilfully, to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to fourteen years

167.or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned ; and if he has acted without reasonable excuse to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years or such less punishment as is in this
Act mentioned.

56.False accussation.

56.False accussation. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) makes a false accusation against any person subject to this Act, knowing or having reason to believe such accusation to be false ; or

(b) in making a complaint under section 26 or section 27.makes any statement affecting the character of any person subject to this Act, knowing or having reason to believe such statement to be false, or knowingly and wilfully suppresses any material facts ;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

57.Falsifying official documents and false declaration.

57.Falsifying official documents and false declaration. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) in any report, return, list, certificate, book or other document made or signed by him, or of the contents of which, it is his duty to ascertain the accuracy, knowingly makes, or is privy to the making of, any false or fraudulent statement
; or

(b) in any document of the description mentioned in clause
(a) knowingly makes, or is privy to the making of, any omis-
sion, with intent to defraud ; or

(c) knowingly and with intent to injure any person, or knowingly and with intent to defraud, suppresses, defaces, alters or makes away with any document which it is his duty to preserve or produce ; or

(d) where it is his official duty to make a declaration respecting any matter, knowingly makes a false declaration;
or

(e) obtains for himself, or for any other person, any pension, allowance or other advantage or privilege by a statement which is false, and which he either knows or believes to be false or does not believe to be true, or by making or using a false entry in any book or record, or by making any document containing a false statement, or by omitting to make a true entry or document containing a true statement ;

168.shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to fourteen years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

58.Signing in blank and failure to report.

58. Signing in blank and failure to report. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) when signing any document relating to pay, arms, ammunition, equipment, clothing, supplies or stores, or any property of the Government fraudulently leaves in blank any material part for which his signature is a voucher ; or

(b) refuses or by culpable neglect omits to make or send a report or return which it is his duty to make or send ;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

59.Offences relating to courts martial.

59. Offences relating to courts martial. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) being duly summoned or ordered to attend as a witness before a court-martial, wilfully or without reasonable excuse, makes default in attending ; or

(b) refuses to take an oath or make an affirmation legally required by a court-martial to be taken or made ; or

(c) refuses to produce or deliver any document in his power or control legally required by a court-martial to be produced or delivered by him ; or

(d) refuses when a witness to answer any question which he is by law bound to answer ; or

(e) is guilty of contempt of court-martial by using insulting or threatening language, or by causing any interruption or disturbance in the proceedings of such court
;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

60.

False evidence.

60. False evidence. Any person subject to this Act who, having been duly sworn or affirmed before any court-martial or other court competent under this Act to administer an oath or affirmation, makes any statement which is false, and which he either knows or believes to be false or does not believe to be true, shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

61.Unlawful detention of pay.

61. Unlawful detention of pay. Any officer, warrant officer or noncommissioned officer who, having received the pay of a person subject to this Act unlawfully

169.detains or refuses to pay the same when due, shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to ten years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

62.Offences in relation to aircraft and flying.

62. Offences in relation to aircraft and flying. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) wilfully or without reasonable excuse damages, destroys or loses any aircraft or aircraft material belonging to the
Government ; or

(b) is guilty of any act or neglect likely to cause such damage, destruction or loss ; or

(c) without lawful authority disposes of any aircraft or aircraft material belonging to the Government ; or

(d) is guilty of any act or neglect in flying, or in the use of any aircraft, or in relation to any aircraft or aircraft material, which causes or is likely to cause loss of life or bodily injury to any person ; or

(e) during a state of war, wilfully and without proper occasion, or negligently, causes the sequestration, by or under the authority of a neutral State, or the destruction in a neutral State, of any aircraft belonging to the Government
;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable, if he has acted wilfully, to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to fourteen years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned, and, in any other case, to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

63.Other offences relating to aircraft and flying.

63. Other offences relating to aircraft and flying. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) signs any certificate in relation to an aircraft or aircraft material belonging to the Government without ensuring the accuracy thereof ; or

(b) being the pilot of an aircraft belonging to the
Government, flies it at a height less than such height as may be specified by 1[the Chief of the Air Staff], except while taking off or landing, or in such other circumstances as may be specified by 1 [the Chief of the Air Staff]; or

———————————————————————-

1 Subs, by Act 19 of 1955, s. 2 and ch., for ” the Commander-in-
Chief”.
———————————————————————–

170

(c) being the pilot of an aircraft belonging to the
Government, flies it so as to cause, or to be likely to cause, unnecessary annoyance to any person;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

64.Disobedience of lawful command of captain of aircraft.

64. Disobedience of lawful command of captain of aircraft. Any person subject to this Act who, whatever his rank, commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) while he is in an aircraft disobeys any lawful command given by the captain of the aircraft, whether such captain is subject to this Act or not, as respects all matters relating to the flying or handling of the aircraft, or affecting the safety thereof ; or

(b) being the captain of a glider aircraft towed by another aircraft disobeys any lawful command given by the captain of the towing aircraft, whether the latter is subject to this
Act or not, as respects all matters aforesaid ;

shall on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to fourteen years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

65.Violation of good order and air force discipline.

65. Violation of good order and air force discipline. Any person subject to this Act who is guilty of any act or omission which though not specified in this Act, is prejudicial to good order and air force discipline shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

66.Miscellaneous offences.

66. Miscellaneous offences. Any person subject to this Act who commits any of the following offences, that is to say,-

(a) being in command at any post or on the march, and receiving a complaint that any one under his command has beaten or otherwise maltreated or oppressed any person, or has disturbed any fair or market, or committed any riot or trespass, fails to have due reparation made to the injured person or to report the case to the proper authority ; or

(b) by defiling any place of worship, or otherwise, intentionally insults the religion or wounds the religious feelings of any person ; or

(c) attempts to commit suicide, and in such attempt does any act towards the commission of such offence ; or

(d) being below the rank of warrant officer, when off duty, appears, without proper authority, in or about camp or

171.cantonments, or in or about, or when going to or returning from, any town or bazar, carrying a rifle, sword or other offensive weapon; or

(e) directly or indirectly accepts or obtains, or agrees to accept or attempts to obtain, for himself or for any other person, any gratification as a motive or reward for procuring the enrolment of any person, or leave of absence, promotion or any other advantage or indulgence for any person in the service; or

(f) commits any offence against the property or person of any inhabitant of, or resident in, the country in which he is serving;

shall, on conviction by court-martial, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

67.Attempt.

67. Attempt. Any person subject to this Act who attempts to commit any of the offences specified in sections 34 to 66 inclusive, and in such attempt does any act towards the commission of the offence shall, on conviction by court-martial, where no express provision is made by this Act for the punishment of such attempt, be liable,

if the offence attempted to be committed is punishable with death, to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to fourteen years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned; and

if the offence attempted to be committed is punishable with imprisonment, to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to one-half of the longest term provided for that offence or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

68.Abetment of offences that have been committed.

68. Abetment of offences that have been committed. Any person subject to this Act who abets the commission of any of the offences specified in sections 34 to 66 inclusive, shall, on conviction by court-martial, if the act abetted is committed in consequence of the abetment and no express provision is made by this Act for the punishment of such abetment, be liable to suffer the punishment provided for that offence or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

69.Abetment of offences punishable with death and not committed.

69. Abetment of offences punishable with death and not committed. Any person subject to this Act who abets the commission of any of the offences punishable with death under sections 34, 37 and sub-section (1) of section 38 shall, on conviction by court-martial, if that offence be not committed in consequence of the abetment, and

172.no express provision is made by this Act for the punishment of such abetment, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to fourteen years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

70.

Abetment of offences punishable with imprisonment and not committed.

70. Abetment of offences punishable with imprisonment and not committed. Any person subject to this Act who abets the commission of any of the offences specified in sections 34 to 66 inclusive, and punishable with imprisonment shall, on conviction by court-martial, if that offence be not committed in consequence of the abetment, and no express provision is made by this Act for the punishment of such abetment, be liable to suffer imprisonment for a term which may extend to one-half of the longest term provided for that offence or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

71.Civil offences.

71. Civil offences. Subject to the provisions of section 72, any person subject to this Act who at any place in or beyond India commits any civil offence shall be deemed to be guilty of an offence against this Act and, if charged therewith under this section shall be liable to be tried by a court-martial and, on conviction, be punishable as follows, that is to say,-

(a) if the offence is one which would be punishable under any law in force in India with death, or with transportation, he shall be liable to suffer any punishment, other than whipping, assigned for the offence by the aforesaid law and such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned; and

(b) in any other case, he shall be liable to suffer any punishment other than whipping, assigned for the offence by any law in force in India, or imprisonment for a term which may extend to seven years or such less punishment as is in this Act mentioned.

72.Civil offences not triable by court-martial.

72. Civil offences not triable by court-martial. A person subject to this Act who commits an offence of murder against a person not subject to military, naval or air force law, or of culpable homicide not amounting to murder against such a person or of rape in relation to such a person, shall not be deemed to be guilty of an offence against this Act and shall not be tried by a court-martial, unless he commits any of the said offences-

(a) while on active service, or

(b) at any place outside India, or

(c) at a frontier post specified by the said Government by notification in this behalf.

————————————————————————

1 Explanation omitted by Act 13 of 1975, s. 2 (w.e.f. 25-1-1975).

CHAPTER VIIPUNISHMENTS

 

73. Punishments awardable by courts-martial. Punishments may be inflicted in respect of offences committed by persons subject to this
Act and convicted by courts-martial according to the scale. following, that is to say,-

(a) death ;

(b) transportation for life or for any period not less than seven years, in respect of civil offences ;

(c) imprisonment, either rigorous or simple, for any period not exceeding fourteen years ;

(d) detention for a term not exceeding two years in the case of airmen;

(e) cashiering, in the case of officers;

(f) dismissal from service;

(g) reduction to the ranks or to a lower rank or classification, in the case of warrant officers and non-
commissioned officers:
Provided that a warrant officer reduced to the ranks shall not be required to serve in the ranks as an airman ;

(h) forfeiture of seniority of rank, in the case of officers, warrant officers and non-commissioned officers ;
and forfeiture of all or any part of their service for the purpose of promotion, in the case of any of them whose promotion depends upon length of service ;

(i) forfeiture of service for the purpose of increased pay, pension or any other prescribed purpose ;

(j) severe reprimand or reprimand, in the case of officers, warrant officers and non-commissioned officers;

(k) forfeiture of pay and allowances for a period not exceeding three months for an offence committed on active service;

(l) forfeiture in the case of a person sentenced to cashiering or dismissal from the service of all arrears of pay and allowances and other public money due to him at the time of such cashiering or dismissal;

(m) stoppage of pay and allowances until any proved loss or damage occasioned by the offence of which he is convicted is made. good.

74.Alternative punishments awardable by court-martial.

74. Alternative punishments awardable by court-martial. Subject to the provisions of this Act, a court-martial may, on convicting a person subject to this Act of any of the offences specified in sections 34 to 70 inclusive, award either the particular punishment with which the offence is stated in the said sections to be punishable, or, in lieu thereof, any one of the punishments lower in the scale set

174.out in section 73, regard being had to the nature and degree of the offence.

75.Combination of punishments.

75.Combination of punishments. A sentence of a court-martial may award in addition to, or without any one other punishment, the punishment specified in clause (e) or clause (f) of section 73 and any one or more of the punishments specified in clauses (g) to (m) of that section.

76.Cashiering of officers.

76.Cashiering of officers. An officer shall be sentenced to be cashiered before he is awarded any of the punishments specified in clauses (a) to (c) of section 73.
77.Field punishment.

77. (1)Field punishment. Where any person subject to this Act and under the rank of warrant officer commits any offence on active service, it shall be lawful for a court-martial to award for that offence any such punishment as is prescribed as a field punishment.

(2) Field punishment shall be of the character of personal re-
straint or of hard labour but shall not be of a nature to cause injury to life or limb and shall not include flogging.

78.Position of field punishment in scale of punishments.

78.Position of field punishment in scale of punishments. Field punishment shall for the purpose of commutation be deemed to stand next below dismissal in the scale of punishments specified in section
73.
79.Result of certain punishments in the case of a warrant officer or anoncommissioned officer.

79.Result of certain punishments in the case of a warrant officer or a noncommissioned officer. A warrant officer or a non-commissioned officer sentenced by a court-martial to transportation, imprisonment, detention, field punishment or dismissal from the service shall be deemed to be reduced to the ranks.

80.

Retention in the ranks of a person convicted on active service.

80.Retention in the ranks of a person convicted on active service. When, on active service, any enrolled person has been sentenced by a court-martial to dismissal, or to transportation, imprisonment or detention, whether combined with dismissal or not, the prescribed officer may direct that such person may be retained to serve in the ranks and such service shall be reckoned as part of his term of transportation, imprisonment or detention, if any.

81.Punishments otherwise than by court martial.

81.Punishments otherwise than by court martial. Punishments may also be inflicted in respect of offences committed by persons subject to this Act without the intervention of a court-martial and in the manner stated in sections 82 and 86.
82.Punishment of persons other than officers and warrant officers.

82.Punishment of persons other than officers and warrant officers. Subject to the provisions of section 84, a commanding officer or such other officer as is, with the consent of the Central
Government, specified by 1 [the Chief of the Air Staff], may, in the prescribed manner, proceed against a person subject to this Act otherwise than as an officer or warrant officer who is charged with an offence under this Act and award such person, to the extent prescribed, one or more of the following punishments, that is to say,-

(a) detention up to twenty-eight days;

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1 Subs. by Act 19 of 1955, s. 2 and Sch., for ” the Commander-in-
Chief”.

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175.

(b) confinement to the camp up to fourteen days;

(c) extra guards or duties not exceeding three in number;

(d) deprivation of acting rank;

(e) forfeiture of badge pay ;

(f) severe reprimand or reprimand;

(g) fine up to fourteen days pay in any one month;

(h) penal deductions under clause (g) of section 92;

(i) admonition ;

(j) any prescribed field punishment up to twenty-eight days, in the case of a person on active service.

83.Requirement of sanction in certain cases.

83.Requirement of sanction in certain cases. (1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), the punishments mentioned in section 82.shall not be inflicted in respect of an offence under any of the sections 34, 35 and 36 when committed on active service or under any of the sections 37, 38, 40, 42 (f) and (g), 43, 47, 52, 60, 62, 63,
64, 66(a), (b) and (c) and 71 except with the previous sanction in writing of an officer having power to convene a district court-
martial.

(2) The said punishments may be awarded without such sanction in the case of any offence, other than an offence under section 34 or section 71, committed by persons who have not been enrolled as combatants.

84.Limit of punishments under section 82.84.Limit of punishments under section 82. (1) An award of punishment under section 82 shall not include field punishment in addition to one or more of the punishments specified in clauses (a)
and (b) of that section.

(2) In the case of an award of two or more of the punishments specified in clauses (a), (b) and, (c) of the said section, the punishment specified in clause (b) or clause (c) shall take effect only at the end of the punishment specified in clause (a).

(3) When two or more of the punishments specified in the said clauses (a) and (b) are awarded to a person conjointly, or when already undergoing one or more of the said punishments, the whole extent of the punishments shall not exceed in the aggregate forty-two days.

(4) The punishments specified in clauses (a), (b), (c), (e), (g)
and (j) of section 82 shall not be awarded to any person who is of the rank of non-commissioned officer or was, at the time of committing the offence for which he is punished, of such rank.

(5) The punishment specified in clause (f) of the said section shall not be awarded to any person below the rank of a non-
commissioned officer.

176.85.Punishments in addition to those specified in section 82.85.Punishments in addition to those specified in section 82.1[The Chief of the Air Staff ] may, with the consent of the Central
Government, specify such other punishments as may be awarded under section 82 in addition to or without any of the punishments specified in the said section, and the extent to which such other punishments may be awarded.

86.Punishment of officers and warrant officers.

86.Punishment of officers and warrant officers. An officer having power to convene a general court-martial or such other officer as is, with the consent of the Central Government, specified by 1 [the Chief of the Air Staff ] may, in the prescribed manner, proceed against an officer below the rank of squadron leader or a warrant officer, who is charged with an offence under this Act, and award one or more of the following punishments, that is to say,-

(a) forfeiture of seniority, or in the case of any of them whose promotion depends upon length of service, forfeiture of service for the purpose of promotion for a period not ex-
ceeding twelve months, but subject to the right of the accused previous to the award to elect to be tried by a court-martial ;

(b) severe reprimand or reprimand;

(c) stoppage of pay and allowance until any proved loss or damage occasioned by the offence of which he is convicted is made good but subject to the right of the accused specified in clause (a)

(d) forfeiture of pay and allowances for a period not exceeding three months for an offence under clause (e) of section 42 in so far as it consists of neglect to obey flying orders or under section 62 or section 63.
87.Transmission of proceedings.

87.Transmission of proceedings. In every case in which punishment has been awarded under section 86, certified true copies of the proceedings shall be forwarded, in the prescribed manner, by the officer awarding the punishment, to a superior air force authority as defined in section 89.
88.Review of proceedings.

88.Review of proceedings. If any punishment awarded under section
86 appears to a superior air force authority as defined in section 89.to be illegal, unjust or excessive, such authority may cancel, vary or remit the punishment and make such other direction as may be appropriate in the circumstances of the case.

89.Superior air force authority.

89.Superior air force authority. For the purposes of sections 87.and 88, a “superior, air force authority ” means-

(a) in the case of punishments awarded by a commanding officer, any officer superior in command to such commanding officer ;
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1 Subs. by Act 19 of 1955, s. 2 and Sch., for ” the Commander-
in-Chief”.

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177.(b) in the case of punishments awarded by any other authority, the Central Government, 1[the Chief of the Air
Staff] or other officer specified by 1[the Chief of the Air
Staff].

90.

Collective fines.

90.Collective fines. (1) Whenever any weapon or part of a weapon forming part of the equipment of a unit or detachment is lost or stolen, the officer commanding such unit or detachment may, after obtaining the report of a court of inquiry, impose a collective fine upon the warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men of such unit, or upon so many of them as, in his judgment, should be held responsible- for such loss or theft.

(2) Such fine shall be assessed as a percentage on the pay of the individuals on whom it falls.


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