Karl Marx and “The Mother” BY Maxim Gorky

Maske Prashant Bhimrao

Department of law,Dr.Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University,Aurangabad,Maharastra,India


Karl Marx which propounded theory of communism which became foundation of Russian revolution, it reflected in writings of Russian writers like Maxim Gorky.
Human endeavor is as to dreams to come in reality. No doubt human approximately doesn’t do it but he reaches near it. Here is effort made to analyze dreams seen by communism through eyes of Maxim Gorky & criticism made by other authors and dream came true about which extent.

Among the philosophers Karl Marx leave much impression on worldwide human community. It promises equality to human beings.

Communist approach was started to adopt by many countries like Russia, china etc. more intellects and laborers were attracted to communist philosophy. Capitalistic has fear in their mind about communism.  Nepal which is neighboring country of India adopted communism after earthquake. India self has mix economy as i.e. capitalistic as well as communist. Thus there is need of clear understanding that is it a path?


The most comprehensive and Influential new way of thinking about social, economic, and political issues was developed by German philosopher, Karl Marx. Marx said that the foundations of reality lay the material base of economics rather than in the abstract thought of idealistic philosophy.

According to Marx, in production process a man comes in contact with other men and establishes His relationship with them. There exists relationship between consumption and distribution of provisions and that constitutes social life.


Right from history, society is oriented on class—discrimination. Society always has been divided in opposing classes and man has exploited man. In society, few people control the means of production and become the owner of raw material, essential for producing goods. Others are those who are deprived ownership right, but they are also related with production process.

Being the owner of the wealth, they were also the original sutradar, controller of all economic and political rights.1


This class was based upon the labor of slave producers and their exploitation thus the workers are exploited by the owners who misappropriate the surplus value which is the result of the workers labor. Exploitation can be put an end by nationalization

of the instrument of production i.e. abolition of private property. That the workers outnumber the owners; the workers are bound to capture the State and establish their rule which he called

the dictatorship of the proletariat (laborers). 2

The proletariat wins power by a proletarian revolution. According to Marx and Lenin, this revolution must be violent, because the bourgeoisie (capitalist class) won’t give up power by electoral means.1


The Great Russian writer Maxim Gorky had written the novel “The mother” in relation to communist revolution. He mirrored condition of workers in pre-revolution era. Their feelings, their dreams, their pain was being reflected in novel. Thus to take Russian view in consideration let us reflect on extract of “The Mother”.

(1) How was the situation of workers in pre-revolution era in Russia?

: Laborers start their mourning every day with horn of factory. Their whole day was spent in work of factory because of strain they drink liquor in evening. Every evening they find such relaxation because of release of work.

Laborers often fight with each other in state of intoxication on minor reason like a violent animal.

Among workers there was hidden hatred in their mind. Youngsters of such laborers often seen in beer bar in unconscious state, Parents of such youngsters often take them home giving them slap & curse.

It was the condition of laborers in Russia. One might feel that such situation resembles with the situation of laborers in India.

(2) How was the relationship with father and mother of youngsters?

: The fathers of young laborers were similar to violent animals. Every Sunday they fight with their neighbors. There was always fight between spouses in relation to money issue also, because whole money was spent in drinking liquor by the fathers of youngsters. They beat their wives; consequently their sons also beat their mothers and wives in future. Women in laborer community exploited their whole life by husband and sons.

(3) How transformations happen in life of laborer because of dream of communism?

: Laborers started to read communist literature in secrecy. Communist literature plays vital role in revolution, Although Government of Russia banned to propagate communist thoughts. Labors again reduced to human being than animals. They started to care their mothers and wives & their family.

(4) What aim was perceived by laborers because of communism?

: Laborers started to think about their exploitation in relation to

Capitalism, they are considering their mother and father’s pain in relation to capitalism.

(5) How they struggle?

: They believed that there are only two classes in world- rich and poor, not a Jew, German or English. These two classes never unite. Richest who may be French, German, English, they always exploit poor laborers. They all are evil in the sight of laborer. In such a passion communist revolt happen in Russia.

Government oppressed them but the revolt has been committed successfully. No doubt there was use of violence.3


(1) There was no argument for permanent dictatorship. Humanity does not only want economic values, it also wants spiritual values to be retained. Permanent Dictatorship has paid no attention to spiritual values and doesn’t seem to intend it.

Man must grow materially as well as spiritually.

(2) Communism use violence rather than changing minds of people.

(3)  The Russian Revolution aims to produce equality.

(3)But it cannot be too much emphasized that in producing equality. Society cannot afford to sacrifice fraternity or liberty. Equality will be of no value without fraternity or liberty.2

(4) Within capitalism, in this view we have not only capitalists and workers, but in between, there is a coordinator class (professional –managerial or technocratic) of empowered actors who defend their advantages against workers below and who struggle to enlarge their bargaining power against owners above. But even more, this coordinator class can actually become the ruling class of a new economy with capitalists removed and with workers still subordinate. This coordinator class is not reflected by Marxism.1



(1) Karl Marx denies “Right to property” to individual.

(2) According to Mr.H.M. seervai, an eminent constitutional jurist opinion that the abolition of the right of property as a fundamental right would destroy other fundamental rights which embodied in the Indian constitution such as right to freedom of speech and expression, while Janata government was committed to the electorate for abolition of the right to property as fundamental right. Though only right to property as fundamental right is abolished. But what about other communist countries where doesn’t exist right to private property.

(3) We often see that communist dictator represses right of freedom of speech & expression and other human rights.

(4) Communist dictators as North Korea became hazard to all countries across globe because of hydrogen bomb in their hands.

(5) Dictators of communist countries behave according their wish and whim.

(6)  They don’t give fundamental human rights to their citizens.

(7)   Their terror is in the mind of common citizen.

(8) Dictator can dictate any ridiculous order such as North Korea’s dictator ordered death penalty to a citizens who doesn’t cry in his father’s death ceremony.

(9) Rather than changing structure of society changing of mind of people is necessary and to provide such environment to people to germinate seed of equality, fraternity and liberty.  Then only we can think surplus value can’t be misappropriated in society by capitalists and without violation of human rights.


1.    Law & social transformation in India: Malik & Raval, Allahabad law agency, 4th edition 2014, pg.no.529.

2.     Buddha or Karl Marx: Dr. B.R.Ambedkar,The Education and Employment Department ,Government of Maharashtra,  1st edition,pg.no.443.

3.     The Mother: Maxim Gorky, 11th edition, march 2005.