This study aims to examine the extensively spreading water pollution in ground water and the respective effects as a whole in the country with more subtle importance to ground water pollution due to fluoride in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Groundwater is found in abundance in the above respective states above and serves as a major contribution to the water usage there. With extensive growth of population there has been massive urbanization and industrializatio n leading to pollution as a result of chemical discharge in water bodies. Fluoride and arsenic have been termed as major contributors to pollution resulting in groundwater, taking into account various studies, surveys and researches conducted by state authorities and water control boards.
The study also aims to put forth the legal aspect of Right to Life under Article 21 of the Constitution of India under which an individual is embodied and entitled to a Right to clean drinking water. We aim to portray that chemical concentration in water bodies is a major threat to the living organisms. This study stands for a being a part of the solution and not the pollution.
Water is one the most fundamental and essential elements amongst the natural resources and is imperative for the survival of all living organisms. It serves as an extremely important requisite for Sustainable Development as well as Economic Growth & Development. Water can be termed as one of the most precious gift to mankind. As of the present day, there are various countries worldwide facing a drastic shortage of water. According to statistics, on an average 250 million people worldwide succumb to various health problems and diseases related to water pollution. In recent years, urbanization and industrializatio n have been the most extensive cause of water pollution. However, tones of waste involving organic matter, microbial pathogens, urban sewage, heavy metals, and toxic chemicals are being discharged into water bodies on a daily basis. Lakes, rivers, stream have merely transformed to dumping grounds. As, Rene Dubos quoted, “The most important Pathological effects of pollution are often delayed or indirect. Water pollution is on a global rise than ever before. An estimated 1000 children die every day due to water pollution in India. Wastes are regularly released into the getting water bodies with practically zero respect to their bibulous degree. The release of crude sewage, waste, and also oil slicks are dangers to the weakening abilities of the tidal ponds and waterways in the real urban areas. The common filtration of contaminated waters on a whole is never quick, as for intensely dirtied water has cross long separation in days before a huge level of purifying is accomplished.
The most extensively used source of water is considered to be ground water. Due to its accessibility and general great quality, ground water is broadly utilized for family unit needs and different purposes. Groundwater is an imperative source for the entire hydrologic cycle. Nonetheless, the nature and the nature of surface and ground water are generally factor and are dictated by the nearby topographical history, including the stones and concealed metal stores encompassing the locales for the accumulation of the water, and different elements. The nature of water is inadequately comprehended because of the assortment in the connections amongst water and solvent minerals, dissolvable minerals, and salts.
ISSUES FACED –
As per the Bureau of Indian Standards the authorized amounts of fluoride are 1.5 milligram per liter (1.5 mg/l), however as per reports the fluoride levels present in groundwater in Andhra Pradesh have exceeded the above the limit. Also, the information on the premise of water test concentrate appointed by Center the nation over and transferred in the net uncovered startling realities. The fluoride levels in nine areas of Telangana aside from Hyderabad represent high substance of fluoride while it ought to be beneath 0.5ppm or 0.5 mg/l.
As per statistical reports provided by The Hindu-
Regardless of a few endeavors, still a large number of school understudies in the locale are devouring water with more than 0.6 mg/l to 1.5 mg/l fluoride, the reasonable level of fluoride in water with progressive chosen elected candidates neglecting to respect their guarantees.
As indicated by specialists, if heavy metals enter the groundwater, they can’t be extracted. At most their effect can only be weakened, however they stay adhered to the aquifers for eternity. The report just uncovers the express disappointment of contamination sheets and panels that have existed just in name amid the previous three decades. Absence of control on effluents, which have dirtied the bowls all in all, has brought about these conditions.Signi ficant issues are confronted in a few sections of the world because of the nearness of high grouping of fluoride in drinking water which causes dental and skeletal fluorosis to people. Nalgonda region in Andhra Pradesh, India is one such area where high grouping of fluoride is available in groundwater. Nalgonda District in Andhra Pradesh is said to have the most noteworthy grouping of individuals influenced by fluorosis. Almost 500 towns in the locale are grasped by fluorosis bringing about twenty thousand fluorosis casualties in the region. As indicated by the World Health Organization, greatest level of fluoride in water ought to be 1 ppm or 1 mg/l. In Nalgonda, the water contains up to 10 ppm of fluoride. Numerous grown-ups and even youthful kids have been irreversibly influenced by skeletal fluorosis in this region.
Since there are no significant reviews in the later past, the present review was done to comprehend the present status of groundwater quality in Nalgonda, furthermore to survey the conceivable reasons for high convergence of fluoride in groundwater. Tests from 45 wells were gathered once like clockwork and investigated for fluoride fixation utilizing a particle chromatograph. The fluoride focus in groundwater of this locale extended from 0.1 to 8.8 mg/l with a mean of 1.3 mg/l. Around 52% of the specimens gathered were reasonable for human utilization. Nonetheless, 18% of the examples were having not exactly the required furthest reaches of 0.6 mg/l, and 30% of the specimens had high centralization of fluoride, i.e., over 1.5 mg/l. Rocks being withered and vanishing of groundwater are major causes of fluoride concentration in groundwater.
However, considerably certain measures have been issued and raised by the legislative authorities to curb the problem of water pollution as a whole.
The Telangana, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has recently issued warnings to pharmaceutical companies in Telangana for contamination and for not introducing progressed online nonstop gushing checking frameworks. The primary reason for CETPs is to reuse and clean the unsafe effluents created from the pharmacy and mass medication producing businesses in the state and discharge the treated water into the principle rivulets.Central Pollution Control Board has requested that they introduce nonstop checking frameworks to guarantee responsibility and straightforwardn ess. Address was brought up in Lok Sabha on Contamination of Ground Water. Ground water quality information created by Central Ground Water Board (CGWB) amid different logical reviews and ground water quality checking demonstrates that ground water in disengaged pockets in parts of different States including Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Telangana and Bihar is defiled with Fluoride, Nitrate, Arsenic, etc.. To expand accessibility of drinking water, the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation has proposed all States to embrace water preservation measures like rooftop top water collecting, raising maintainability structures for water protection and so forth. For making such supportability structures, 10 % of National Rural Drinking Water Program (NRDWP) store is given to the States.
Fluoride ingestion in low levels mixes is helpful to the body and anticipates dental caries. Any case, long haul ingestion of abundance fluoride can be destructive to the body and cause a condition known as fluorosis that influences teeth and bones.In the later past there has been extreme reliance on groundwater to meet consumable water needs. On the off chance that groundwater goes through fluoride rich rocks, it breaks up the fluoride and the water thusly can have more than a worthy level of fluoride. Water utilized for drinking ought not have fluoride in abundance of 1.0 mg/l.
No specific medication for Fluorosis has been discovered yet, however, treatment frameworks that can direct the measure of fluoride in water are accessible. The control of drinking-water quality is along these lines basic in averting fluorosis. In all fluoride influenced zones it is prompted that water reaping is done to revive the groundwater source that shows high fluoride levels. In spots where fluoride levels are between 1.5 to 2 mg/l, some dietary mediation can offer assistance. In these spots it is informed to eat more with respect to sustenance’s that are rich in iron, calcium and Vitamin C. The utilization of dark salt and items containing it, and also the utilization of fluoridated toothpastes ought to be evaded in these zones.
The Human Right to Water and Sanitation was recognized by the United Nations General Assembly in 2010.According to the domestic law in India, every citizen has a Right to clean water. This falls under the ambit of Article 21 of the Indian Constitution pertaining to Right to Life. Right to Water is considered as a concrete constitutionally protected right. Nonetheless, the situation regarding fluoride pollution in the districts of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh is worsening by the day.
The diseases are on a rise compared to before, which is not only affecting the adults but also the younger generations in an extensive manner.
The government and law shall strive to protect the citizens for it is their absolute right as Indian citizens to be enabled to have access to clean and sanitized and pollution free water.
It is about time we bring a change. For Barack Obama rightly said, “ We are the change that we seek.”