Conveyancing has been practiced as a fine art in England by a class of trained lawyers who have specialized as conveyancers after an intensive study of the law relating to contracts and real property. Though the term conveyancing used by most of the England Lawyers for drafting the documents of their clients but as the years rolled by Conveyancing got its own importance even in India too. In Modern India Draftsman plays an important role while drafting any legal documents or deeds and he can do so if he is high qualified in the field of law so draftsman must keep in mind all the legal principles before preparing any legal documents or deeds.

The word ‘CONVEYANCING’ means lend transfer inter-vivos i.e. two living persons. Conveyancing is an art of drafting deeds and legal documents whereby any right, title or interest in tangible immovable property is transferred from one person to another. Conveyancing is not just an ordinary art but it is thoroughly based on legal knowledge and principles evolved over years. The term conveyancing is restricted to deeds and documents concerned with the transfer of property whereas drafting carries a general meaning that of preparing any legal documents or deeds or any other business oriented documents.

The word ‘SALE’ defined under Section 54 of “The Transfer of Property Act, 1882” is a transfer of ownership in exchange of price paid or promised or part-paid and part-promised. It means absolute transfer of tangible immovable property by the vendor to the purchaser by entering into a contract for sale wherein both the parties will settle the terms and conditions of transfer. Such transfer can be done through the registered document and thus delivery of the property can be by handing over the actual possession of the immovable property by the vendor to the purchaser or the person legally authorised by him. In a sale of tangible immovable property an Encumbrance Certificate will be passed to the purchaser by the vendor whereby all the statutory rights i.e. easementry rights, beneficiary rights, actionable claims as well as vested interest in the immovable property will be transferred in-toto.

Before explaining the term ‘Sale Deed’ let me define ‘Agreement To Sell’ which proceeds ‘SALE DEED’ and it protects the interest of both buyer and seller. An agreement to sell is a legal written document on which the conveyance deed is drafted under which both the parties will settle certain terms and conditions i.e. seller will be intending to transfer/sale the property and buyer will be intending to purchase it. An agreement to sell has to be executed by the seller and the buyer on a non-judicial stamp paper and the same has to be duly signed by both the parties. It has got legal value and if necessary can be produced as evidence in a court of law. An agreement is a pre-requirement for the sale of an immovable property where in the buyer will pay to seller some token amount as advance and seller must issue receipt for the amount received as token amount. While entering into an agreement to sell, the seller should mandatorily state all the material defects in the property as well as in the title and it is the right and duty of the buyer to investigate the title before buying the property. There should not be any Lis- Pendens i.e. pendency of suit in a court of law regarding the property in sale. Lastly the agreement to sell must contain all the terms and conditions which are necessary for transaction of a valid sale of an immovable property.

The word ‘SALE DEED’ otherwise called as ‘Conveyance Deed’ is a legal written document executed by the vendor and the purchaser which evidences the sale and transfer of ownership of the tangible immovable property. A sale deed is governed by ‘The Registration Act, 1908’ and is an important document for both the buyer or the transferee and the seller or the transferor. A sale deed is executed after the execution of the agreement to sell, and after compliance of various terms and conditions between the seller and the purchaser mutually. A sale deed is the main document which gives details of how the seller got the property, at what consideration the seller is selling the property and assurance to the purchaser that the property is free from any encumbrances, liabilities or indemnity clauses. A sale deed acts as a essential document for the further sale of the property by the purchaser as it establishes the proof of ownership of property.

Requirements of Sale Deed:

A sale deed is one of the most valuable legal documents in a purchase or sale of a property. A sale deed is drafted by legal draftsman on a non-judicial stamp paper of the requisite value as prescribed by stamp act of the particular state concerned. A draftsman must include certain clauses while preparing the construction of the sale deed which are as follows:

  • Name of the deed: It is the parties who have to decide that which deed has to be prepared e.g. THIS DEED OF SALE or THIS DEED OF MORTGAGE or THIS DEED OF LEASE etc. and based on which there will be transfer of ownership of immovable property.
  • Parties to sale deed: An absolute sale deed must contain the names, age and respective addresses of parties to the transaction and both the parties i.e. seller and buyer must be competent to enter into a contract so that it will not affect the validity of the valid sale. It is very much important that the sale deed is duly signed and executed by both the parties with their bona-fide intention. A valid sale deed must start with clear description of the parties.
  • Description of the property sold: A valid sale deed must contain full description of the property which is the subject matter of sale. It must include identification number, total plot area, construction details as well as its location with its surrounding areas. A schedule of the property must be included in the sale deed which will define the exact location where the property is actually situated.
  • Agreement for sale: An agreement for sale is the main requirement of the drafting of the valid sale deed and both the parties must mutually settle the terms and conditions of the agreement so that it will not affect the rights of the parties. A sale deed always precedes agreement to sell.
  • Sale consideration clause: A sale deed must include the clause stating the sale consideration/amount as agreed between the seller and the buyer which has to be paid by the buyer to the seller on the execution of sale deed. A sale amount should be clearly stated in sale deed as agreed in the agreement to sell so that there should not be any onus on the parties to the transaction.
  • Advance payment if any: If there is any transaction of token amount paid by the buyer to the seller then it has to be clearly mentioned in the sale deed, and how much is the remaining balance to be paid on the execution of the sale deed.
  • Mode of payment: It is always the buyer who has to decide that how he is going to pay the sale consideration amount whether by Cash /Cheque/ Demand Draft and the same has to be agreed by the seller.
  • Passing of the title: A sale deed should contain the clause when the original title of the property to be passed to the purchaser. A time limit should be given to the seller for the transfer of the title. Once the title of the immovable property is transferred, all the rights will pass to the purchaser.
  • Delivery of the possession: The possession of the immovable property will be transferred to the purchaser by the vendor once the registration process is completed. A clause in the sale deed must state when there will be actual delivery of the possession.
  • Indemnity provision if any: A seller must clear all the statutory charges i.e. property tax, electricity charges, water bills, cess, society charges, maintenance charges and all other charges relating to the property before the execution of the sale deed. In case there is any encumbrance on the property, the seller needs to repay the loan amount and get the property papers cleared of the encumbrance. It is the duty of the buyer to verify the encumbrance status from the office of the registrar.
  • Execution: Once the Sale Deed is prepared all the parties to the deed shall execute it by affixing their thumb impression or full signature. Each page should be signed by the seller and buyer. Any alteration, addition or deletion is to be authenticated by full signature of the parties. Execution of the sale deed requires to be witnessed by two witnesses. The witnesses shall give their full particulars and addresses.
  • Registration: According to Section: 17 of ‘The Registration Act, 1908’, the registration of a tangible immovable property is compulsory if the value of the respective property exceeds rupees 100/- and it is the registration of the property which makes the sale valid. For getting the registration done both the parties must be present before the jurisdictional sub-registrar office with the original documents within four months from the date of execution. A stamp duty has to be paid by the purchaser to the sub-registrar for getting the registration done. A certified copy of the registration document to be obtained for the future reference.
  • Testatum: Once all the terms and conditions have been settled between both the parties, a sale deed is prepared. The executed sale deed should be witnessed by at least two witnesses one from seller side and one from buyer side, giving their full names, addresses and signatures.
  • Original documents: Once the property gets registered under the registration act all the original documents of the sold property to be hand over by the seller to the purchaser. All the statutory rights along with ownership, possession, title, interest will get vested in favour of the purchaser.
  • Default clause: An agreement for sale of immovable property should include the clause stating if there is any default by the vendor or the purchaser then the party who rescinds the contract need to pay damages to the other party for the breach of contract so that it will not affect to the execution of the sale deed.

Since drafting of sale deed requires abundant caution and presence of mind with sufficient knowledge of property and other allied laws, it would be better if services of advocates who have vast experience in property transactions are utilized to avoid unexpected and uncalled for litigations which may arise in a poorly drafted sale deed.


  1. ‘A’ sold his property to ‘B’ by executing a registered sale deed for Rs. 5 lacs. The recital of sale deed says that the delivery of property was transferred from ‘A’ to ‘B’. later on the same day itself both ‘A’ and ‘B’ entered into an agreement containing Rs.100/- value stamp paper. in the said agreement both ‘A’ and’B’ stated jointly that on the date of execution of the above said sale deed ‘B’ advanced an amount of Rs. 10 lacs to ‘A’ for his family expenses, ‘A’ there by undertakes to pay the said amount along with interest at the rate of 24% per annum to ‘B’ within 2 years from the date of said sale deed till then both ‘A’ and ‘B’ agreed that ‘A’ can retain possession over the above mentioned property. further there is a stipulation in the agreement that if ‘A’ fails to pay the entire debt amount to ‘B’ within 2 years from then onward then ‘B’ can take over the possession over the said property. But ‘A’ paid interest only for 2 years but not paid the principle amount. How we can style the agreement between ‘A’ and ‘B’ on 100/- rupee stamp paper. whether such agreement can be a compulsory registerable document under Registration Act. Whether the said agreement bears sufficient stamp duty?

  2. Hi im kuldeep from ludhiana. Kindly assist to me in a sale deed family witness is aunthentic in both of side between saler and buyer. No transaction was done even a single peny amount. And witness is pertaing to family without mention address and any type of identity. Now the matter is under civil court. But respected sir i need to help and support for convey me to better guide.

  3. i purachse a land and done a sale agreement with owner and make full payment to owner .now i want to sell this land to other party.but i want to done sale deed of land directly from first first owner

  4. Please let me know about the legal status of a sale deed if it is signed by the seller only and there is no signature of the buyer anywhere. Is it a valid sale deed.

  5. A pABC company was dfuly informed/sought permission to transfer the right of ownership to B and in reply ABC Co. confirmed having transferred the flat in the name of B and also assure to get it registered in the office of Registrar. KINDLY LET ME KNOW AS TO WHETHER THERE WILL BE ANY REFERENCE OF iST ALLOTTEE I.E. A BECAUSE HE HAS RECEIVED THE CONSIDERATION AMOUNT. PLEASE GUIDE.

  6. If Agreement of Sale has been completed but the papers are not available either misplaced or lost can ‘sale deed’ still be completed and stamp duty paid.

  7. If I enter into Agreement for Sale and if all the conditions of the agreement are fulfilled, whether such agreement would be construed as “Sale Deed’ or a separate Sale Deed is to be executed to convey the title.

  8. I don’t agree with the some views expressed in this article. It is true that a sale deed always precedes agreement for sale but the agreement for sale need not always be in writing for oral agreement for sale between the parties is equally valid in the eyes of law. Moreover, in India it is not mandatory that a buyer should execute a sale deed. Please don’t provide incorrect information to the readers.

  9. I have purchased a farm land and registration is complete. But there is dependency in schedule of property and survey report ( by govt surveyor ). Can I claim the damage from seller now?.

  10. I have a problem of delay in registering an additional bedroom bought from the promoter of my apartment. I bought a double bedroom flat through bank loan. As the apartment was under construction at that time, the double bedroom flat was purchased through a “sale agreement” and hence the bank sanctioned the loan in periodical instalments. However, before the construction was completed, we found the possibility of annexing another bed-room from the adjacent flat and approached the Promoters. The promoters, to our surprise, agreed to join the third bedroom, and declared that they would be able to sell the adjacent flat as a single bedroom one since there are prospective buyers for a single bedroom flat also. The price quoted for the extra, third bedroom for our flat, quoted by the promoters was paid by us and we got the room annexted. Fearing the complications involved in modifying the “sale deed” submitted to the bank, we decided to execute the registration of the additional bedroom (or the modification in the registration already executed) after the completion of the payment of all the EMIs to the bank.
    We have been paying the yearly house tax which was determined by measuring the house and was fixed including the third bedroom.
    Now, my question is, what legal issues we may encounter in modifying the sale deed after fifteen years and how can they be resolved?

  11. I purchased my flat in 1990. I have deed of possession, paid stamp duty and all other required documents. But due to some reason saledeed was not done . Now is it tat for doing saledeed we need to pay current stamp duty amount??

    1. There is nothing like deed of possession in India but if sale deed has not yet been registered and you are intending to register it now then stamp duty at the rate prevailing on the date of registration will be required to be paid by the buyer.

  12. My problem is, i have purchase Flat from 2 nd owner and i have applied to Bank for Mortgage loan and submitt all documments to Finance Co. but they notice that there is no Orignal copy of Deed of Appartment between the 1 st Flat owner and Builder. now i want to know if Loss the same, what is provision or subsequent document to getting the Mortgage Loan from the Finance Company/Bank.
    Please suggest or your opinion so i can fight with them legaly with your reply..

    thanks a lot..

    1. Get a certified copy of the previous sale deed from the office of the Registrar of Assurances within whose jurisdiction the property is situated.

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  14. Deed of Apartment has been executed and registered, however, post registration, it was observed that in payment schedule, there was mismatch in payment of consideration in figures and words (typographical error) and also it was mentioned that the balance will be paid by financial institute. Does this become a agreement to sale or sale deed. The seller has acknowledge the payment vide separate receipt,

    Is it necessary to execute a correction deed

  15. Hi Mr. Dhawesh,

    While trying to sell an old property that we own in Bangalore, which was purchased in 1995, I noticed that the Seller has omitted to put his signature on one of the pages. The deed runs to five pages and all signatures are present in appropriate places everywhere else. The registrar’s seals and advocate’s stamps are present and the serial number of the deed has been stamped in all pages, numbered in correct sequence. All witness signatures and other dates are all proper.

    Today, I have been told that the validity of the deed is questionable despite all the above features being correct, just because of one signature being missed, by oversight of all parties involved, including the Registrar’s office that executed the Sale Deed..!!!! No one had noticed it.

    The Seller is no longer available and is untraceable, due to which a Rectification deed cannot be provided.

    In your expert opinion, does this omission make the deed invalid or illegal. What is the value of all the other seals and stamps that are appropriately placed in the full document, including on the said page?

    Would appreciate your opinion / advice.

    Thank you and regards


    1. No effect on validity of sale deed , it is valid . only one question may be arises that the contents of that unsigned page but unavailability of seller it is unchallengeable . the seller signed in deed as well as registration office to execute the deed is sufficient .

  16. In order to make garage rectangle as a GPA holder my father purchased small piece of land measuring 1 ft by 16 ft (16 Sqft) from my neighbor in Koramangala Bangalore. Now I found that the sale is not registered. I want register it now.
    The current land value is 30 times more.
    How can I register the purchase.


  17. Sir, I would like to know that while making a deed on advance payment, exactly how is the vendor or the buyer indemnified by the other if the other fails to fulfill the contract by the deadline agreed upon by both the parties & how is it so mentioned in the advance contract made.

  18. our partners want to purchase a land for construction , for which we have to pay token amount . so we want a format which includes all the details of payment and the safer side norms for us because we r buyer..and all the required names of the documents which is needed to purchase a land in raigad dist (neral -matheran)..

  19. The sites adjoining my sites have been mentioned wrongly and hence I need a rectification deed. I need to understand more and execute this. Pls help or call me

  20. how to rectify wrongly typed date in conveyance date. eg the conveyance deed says 5th oct but the registrar offfce has executed it on 4th oct…how to get this solved?

  21. sale deed is executed by my husband to his friend.but my husband didnt give possession to his friend.he didnt even take possession from my husband from 2 years.all revenue records are in the name of my husband.we are paying even tax for said their any chance to take return our land?

  22. I have Purchased a Shop in Shopping Mall,last three year back,when i asked Possession letter to builder they are giving maintenance agreement and saying it is a possession letter ,is it ok, please help me.

  23. I have entered in a sale deed for sale of my property one year avow the sale was to be finalsed in six months now after one year also the buyer is not buying the property nor is he letting me sell it to third party. What options do I have

  24. Sir/Madam,

    I recently done a sale agreement with the developer & all the building related docs submitted to the bank for the loan process.Now bank is asking for to do the registration @6% on the mentioned property value before the 1st disbursement to the developer.Is it compulsory to make the registration before start the loan amount or is there any rules at bank?.Is this right way to make the partly registration ?

  25. Hi sir,

    We purchased a house in India,planning to register it on the names of my husband & me.Only my husband presence is enough for the registration/i should also go for registration.
    please advise me is there any option to do registration with out me on my name.

  26. I represent an Australian Company. We are purchasing large amounts of real estate from an Indian company in India.

    I need to find a conveyencer/draftsman company to represent us in these transactions.

    Can a company representative please contact me via email email address ron (@) oxcorp .com .au

  27. dear sir, What is the impact of difference amount in sale deed to sale agreement
    for example if we mention the lesser amount in sale deed than sale agreement what is the implication in future may have to be faced

  28. hi iam verkha
    i purchased flat in Bangalore. According to my sale deed i have to pay maintenance per.sq but accosiation member force me i have to give maintenance equally to 3bhk which is 1500sq ad my flat area is only 735sq in this case what should i have to do ??I have to complain in consumer court or what ???

  29. we sale the agriculteral land in ahmednager and some amt recivied by indl and remaining amt decided to given through cheque as mention in sale deed,done in front of registerar but still indl not paid and now agree after two yr when i appled for cancellation of sale deed in court ahmednager but as court is still not giving any decision but mean while circle officer decleared owner ship of land … what should i have to do now ?

  30. The plot of land and the building that i am planning to purchase is in the name of a lady, her son and daughter. Son lives in the US. A part of the amount payable will be obtained through bank loan. The bank wants that the sale agreement must be registered for getting a loan. The problem is that her son cannot come immediately. What options do i have ? Can the lady get a power of attorney from both of her son and daughter empowering her to sell the property on their behalf and to do the needful? Further for registration of the sale agreement is it necessary that the owners must be present at the of registration ! Please help…i am at a fix !

  31. After completion of agreement to sale of an immovable property and on receipt of token amount by the seller ,what is the time frame allowable to the buyer to pay the balance amount to the seller by cheque/D.D and complete the sale deed?

  32. A sale Deed was registered in Delhi 1999 where the document was admitted by the concerned Sub Registrar without the signature of Vendee (purchaser).The document was signed by Vendor and the Witnessess at the time of registration. Is there anything in law under the registeration act or any act that in certain state in India vendee signature is not mandatory.

  33. I recently bought a property in Navi mumbai, the Conveyancing is not taken place in that society. after discussed with my society manager, he said the same under progress. Is it any chance i can include my name directly while doing the conveyancing.. What is the rule says, which act? can you please help me

  34. hello sir,
    i purchase home in gujarat in year-2005 and give payment through bank loan to the seller and done sale deed,after 8 years seller said i want to my home back so my query is can he cancelled a sale deed through court?.

    1. (i) A deed of cancellation of a sale unilaterally executed by the transferor does not create, assign, limit or extinguish any right, title or interest in the property and is of no effect. Such a document does not create any encumbrance in the property already transferred. Hence such a deed of cancellation cannot be accepted for registration. (ii) Once title to the property is vested in the transferee by the sale of the property, it cannot be divested unto the transferor by execution and registration of a deed of cancellation even with the consent of the parties. The proper course would be to re-convey the property by a deed of conveyance by the transferee in favour of the transferor. (iii) Where a transfer is effected by way of sale with the condition that title will pass on payment of consideration, and such intention is clear from the recital in the deed, then such instrument or sale can be cancelled by a deed of cancellation with the consent of both the parties on the ground of non-payment of consideration. The reason is that in such a sale deed, admittedly, the title remained with the transferor. (iv) In other cases, a complete and absolute sale can be cancelled at the instance of the transferor only by taking recourse to the Civil Court by obtaining a decree of cancellation of sale deed on the ground inter alia of fraud or any other valid reasons.

      Madras High Court
      M/S.Latif Estate Line India Ltd vs Mrs. Hadeeja Ammal on 11 February, 2011 – AIR 2011 Mad 66 (F.B.)

  35. Our society at Kamothe is conveyanced and I asked the society to issue the copy of conveyance deed but they denied and told me to bring NOC from Builder. Does it really necessary to have a copy? Otherwise shall i take it from CIDCO offic? Please guide me.

  36. I had purchased land . sale deed
    and RTC show that land is in survey no 290 and boundary details
    now Survey department say that actual
    land which I purchased is in other survey No. Where is my land no body tells . anybody please help

    1. through RTI seek information from Survey Dept. and then if necessary go for a rectification deed.

  37. A sale deed registered in sub registrar office by the builder in favour of buyer. As buyer was abroad, he has not signed the sale deed. Is it a valid sale deed?

  38. I have purchased a agricutural land three years ago. As per the sales deed I got possession, This land was a joint property of three brothers and they mutually partitioned the property by keeping in the mind to make the supply of water for irrigation purpose. Two brothers Out of three have sold their land to me.So please advice me in this case that Revenue officer can make partition as per the demand of third brother and reject my registered sales deed.
    Now the problem is with their third brother that he was to change the surroundings and forcefully want to capture the land.

  39. I purchased & executed a sale deed and registered the same after paying the stamp duty around one year back. Now I have found that the person from the developer side who signed as partner in the deed had no power to sign the deed. How to correct the same to get legal validity for the sale deed.

    thanking you

  40. i have purchased land in punjab in 1990 and an agreement to sell was signed by vendors stating that full and final payment has been made and possession handed over and nothing is due.deed could not be registered .power of attorney and will was also executed but the seller died and his legal heirs sold the land to someone else. what is my status now?

  41. Whether agreement for sale or sale deed is compulsory as per law before conveyance deed is made for the same property. If conveyance deed is made directly whether it has legal value & if not under which law.

  42. I purchazed a flat in kamothe navi mumbai wich got registered in march 2008 but as i was not awre of the fact that after there is sale deed. but when I went for cidco transfer for the sale deed but I dont have made that. Now I want to make sale deed. what should I do? i am totally confused.
    Please help

  43. I signed a token receipt for the sale of my house.The language of the receipt was ”
    AGREEMENT TO SELL house no—between — and —.I–S/O —resident of House no—- herby enter into an agreement to sell house no— for a consideration of Rs20500000 in favour of —resident of—.As token money ,I have received Rs- 200000 from the vendee vide cheque no—- dtd—-.The time for REgistered Sale deed will be 3 months after I have settled my case with—bank ,which fact I will communicate to the vendee through registerd letterafter the receipt of which within 15 days.The vendee will pay Rs 5000000/-to me as advance money.
    Signed by me and the vendee and witnessed by two witnesses.It was verbally agreed that on my first demand the vendee will pay me Rs 500000o to enable me to pay down payment to the bank to seetle everything with the bank and after 3 months after settlement with the bank the sale deed will be done by paying the balance amount.After signing of this token receipt I sentr a regisrtered letter to thevendee demanding Rs 5000000(He did acknowledge my letter.The same day I communicated this to the vendee telephonically-but he did not respond fore about 6 months.After about 6 months he claims to have sent a registered letter confirming that he is willing to make the payment(Though I never received that letter.He also claims to have sent another letter about 6 monts later(not received by me).In the meanwhile sionce he did not respond to my demand I was forced to borrow money from my relatives and make the down payment and settle my affairs with the bank.Instead of making the payment he decided to file a suit for specific performance.THese are some of the pertinent details.What is your advice and where edo I stand. Now the value of that property is at least 5 times

  44. I desire to purchase a house and for which I have to pay token Advance
    for the sale amount already decided by both the Seller and myself. For effecting an advance amount what kind of Receipt has to be obtained from the Seller please inform me through email

  45. My elder brother sold a property to me on 22-02-08 and executed a sale deed on stamp paper of Rs 100 attested by notary public .This is not registered in registrar office . They got full and final payment by cheque and gave me the possesion of that property . On 11-7-11 he died in road accident left by his wife and 2 minor children and now i want to sell this property to some one and my sister in law is ready to register this property in my favour but buyer’s side advocate said that this sale deed which my brother executed with me is null and invalid because that sale deed was not registered . So please advice me in this case that my sale of this property is valid or invalid. And if my sister in law registers a new sale deed in my favour on behalf of that sale deed is legal or illegal.

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