Mohan Rao Bolla, Former Principal, R. G. I. Law 

Asst. Prof. DNR College of Law, Bhimavaram 

Researcher guided by Prof. Annam Subrahmanyam, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam. 


The  Initiative  

KAKINADA SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE PRIVATE LIMITED (KSEZ), having been endowed with an objective of setting up of industrial establishments contributing for the development of the area, started bi fold activity of purchasing and acquiring lands in the Notified Area. While the land acquisition is in progress, there has been the ‘hue and cry’ and  the agitations against the KSEZ added by erection of tents, hunger strike and non co operation by the peasants preventing the entry of even the vehicles into the villages.  However, the SOCIO ECONOMIC/STATUS SURVEY of the PROJECT AFFECTED FAMILIES has been taken up by the researcher in the notified area with the consent of the KSEZ. 

Objective Assessment and the Fair Way             

The Socio Economic Survey of the Project Affected Families has been organized with a humanistic perspective. Keeping this in view, the survey activity has been  conducted taking all precautions about several aspects relating to the objective assessment, categorization of the peasants and special care was taken not to be carried away by the politics prevailing and spreading in the villages at the time of conducting the Socio Economic Survey. 

 The research activity has been conducted taking all precautions about several aspects relating to the objective assessment and categorization of the peasants and special care was taken not to be carried away by the politics prevailing and spreading in the  villages at the time of the socio economic survey itself.    


The  Survey of the Project Affected Area   

            The area of the survey i.e., the Project Affected Area which actually spread over Three  mandals namely Uppada Kothapalli Mandal and Thondangi Mandal and Kakinada Rural Mandal.  The KSEZ takes over land in all the mandals but   displacement of the Project affected Families  only includes a total number of 13 hamlets two villages in Uppada Kothapalli  Mandal and one hamlet in one village of  Kakinada  Rural Mandal.  

The hamlet wise particulars of the three villages where the socio economic survey conducted were as under:  

Villages in Uppada Kothapalli Mandal  Village/hamlet in Kakinada (rural )                                       


Srirampuram                    Ravivaripodu  Polavaram 
Kollavaripalem                Dadalapalem    

The Survey Population  

The Survey population includes all the families in the clusters of SC families, BC families and OC families. All the households situated in all the above clusters/hamlets have been covered in ‘toto’.  The total number of estimated families to be covered in the survey were  roughly about 1500 households.  

 Preliminary Survey and Interactions  

  A preliminary survey of the Project Affected Area was organized for the hands on approach, as part of the formulative research practices. Consequent to the preliminary field survey, certain hamlets where only the inhabitants  belong  to the Scheduled Castes, Backward Classes and Other Castes could be identified and segregated accordingly.  

            In Srirampuram village the ‘de facto’ ex surpunch of the village panchayat Mr Pirla Govindaraju[1] had given a rough sketch and demography of the villages/ hamlets and also the voters list of the past assembly elections held in 2004.  

          The researcher was directed to meet one Sri Bavisetti  Narayana swami[popularly called Peda Kapu garu-the village head]  of Ravivaripodu[2]  for undertaking any activity in the village. It was apt enough who also gave some  particulars of the villagers.  The respondents in the preliminary survey  have expressed that they are being carried away by the govt. policy of establishing KSEZ and evacuating their native villages without taking their consent.  

           Some of the villagers led by some Land Lords and Small farmers of Ravivari Podu have been agitating against the taking over of their lands.  According to them, it is not  fair for the government or KSEZ  to acquire  their lands even without their consent.   Mostly the villagers are not happy with the attitude of the political leaders who did not come to their rescue against the government policy and the KSEZ . 

              Their grouse was particularly against the government authorities who did not even conduct any awareness sessions for the villagers of all the Project Affected Families of the KSEZ[3].   

The Research Methodology   

It was decided to organize the survey following Inductive method of research i.e., entering into the field with open mind and conduct the empirical survey without any subjective involvement.  Collection of data shall be based on Interview conducted with the help of the schedule finalized in consultation with the most experienced and eminent researchers besides the research supervisor.  

The following clusters/hamlets of the Project Affected Families  have been segregated adopting the Stratified Random Sampling technique. The village in Uppada Kothapalli Mandal wherein both the lands are being taken over and the villages are sought to be evacuated. A hamlet attached to  Moolapeta village also forms part of the Project Affected Area. So also a single hamlet of Thammavaram village namely Polavaram located adjascent to Sakthi Gas Industries Limited in the shore area of Kakinada Rural Mandal. Pertinently, this hamlet is also being evacuated along with the other 12 hamlets of Uppada Kothapalli Mandal.  

Srirampuram/Ramanakkapeta  Village- Uppada Kothapalli Mandal 

Strata   Name of the cluster/hamlet  Type of population  Class  Remarks 
01  Mathavaripalem 





Landless poor    
02  Srirampuram 


Pativari palem 



Landless poor 

Marginal farmers/ Landless poor 

03  RamaRaghavapuram 






Marginal farmers 

Landless poor 


Ponnada Village- Uppada Kothapalli Mandal 

Strata  Name of the Cluster/hamlet  Type of Population  Class  Remarks 
01  Ravivari Podu  Upper Classes  Landlords, Small/Marginal Farmers  Larger landholdings are not yet sold or given possession to the KSEZ 
02  Dadalapalem  Scheduled Caste  Landless poor    


Thammavaram  Village –Kakinada  Rural Mandal 

Strata  Name of the Cluster/hamlet  Type of Population  Class  Remarks 
01  Polavaram  Backward Classes  Tiny landholders/landless poor    


The Schedule 

 A comprehensive schedule was prepared keeping in view of the Resettlement and Rehabilitation Package[4].  The bi- lingual schedule contained queries including several issues relating to 

  • Name  and address of the of the project affected family 
  •  The number of family members,  
  • Social, educational and marital status of the family members 
  •  Occupations of the members of the family  
  •  Number, age and educational status of the children 
  •  Details of the land and house hold property 
  • Nature and extent of the property-small, marginal etc.,   
  • Nature and number of the crops grown and  
  • The details of cattle rearing and  
  • Their opinion about the industrial development initiated by the government through the SEZ.  

Categorization of the peasants and the countrymen was done basing on the guidelines laid down in the RR Package[5].  The schedule was duly compared with the formats of similar research schedules of some researchers in Andhra and Nagarjuna Universities. The Co-ordinator and the Director of SEZ have also been consulted before its finalization.    

 The Survey at Srirampuram Backward Classes Cluster/habitat   

The Initial Hurdle  

            The survey at Srirampuram could be commenced as per the Action Plan but for the total number of  volunteers attended were only 8 out of the 15 selected at the special orientation session organized at the Andhra University Post Graduate Center for the NSS Volunteers.  However, the survey could be commenced  at about 10 am.  All the volunteers were divided into 4 batches of each comprising of 2 volunteers, In each batch one volunteer would enquire the inmates about the details as per the Schedule  whereas the other would record  the same to save time and provide support to the volunteer.  They were well informed in advance not to go into any  un necessary details.  The volunteers were given some mock sessions as to how they can sustain from being carried away into lengthy discussions and revelations about KSEZ by the innocent villagers.  

                In spite of the vehement resistance[6] from some of the innocent peasants   there was a coverage of a total number of  157 families. It took a lot of time to explain the significance of the independent research work being taken up as part of the author’s Ph.D., study,  consequent to which there is scope for the government to adopt some positive approach towards the poor peasants in  implementing the  rehabilitation schemes.  

              But the day had ended at a halt for the survey created by some of the semi educated youth of the village added by some innocent elder women who did not want to allow an exercise. According to  them the socio economic Survey may  pave the way to force them to lose their lands and their native place itself.  The survey had to be halted when some of the women were immensely showering curses. 

 Second Orientation for the Volunteers  

             The second orientation programme for the volunteers of Nehru Yuva Kendra was organized for the National Service Volunteers with the help of Sri N S Manoranjan , the District Youth coordinator .  A total number of about 35 volunteers had participated in the orientation programme.  A total number of  16 candidates were selected who belong to the neighbouring villages/mandals of  the project affected area.    

              Care was so taken to involve the volunteers of rural background and educated  only up to Intermediate and Graduate level.  It was so decided in view of the experience at the Srirampuram village .  The Research volunteers team had met at the cyclone shelter for a briefing and started off with the research activity in spite of the intermittent hindrances to slow down the research work.  However, the research teams could continue to proceed with the data collection for 2 days continuously at that place. 


The Hazards of the Survey at  Mummidivaripodu and Bandivari peta  

              The next day survey could be continued at Mummidivaripodu[7] and Bandivaripeta[8].   There were misgivings at a particular household where the family members especially the housewife, mother of the two sons who were lost due to a thunder bolt, was literally crying and was not inclined to allow the house owner to give the details.  The attempt to convince the mother and the house owner was futile.  

             There were as many as 10 households where the housewives were trying to evade the collection of data.  The efforts of  explaining the house owner about the socio economic survey where by the coverage in the research activity could be complete and accurate were futile as the house owner turned down the proposal.  

              The research activity could hardly continue by convincing explanation about the significance of the social research activity, which may ultimately help the villagers. Lack of transport facility from one place to the other- intra village and inter village, bad roads and continual rains are the added disadvantages for the conduction of survey besides the in availability of the male member in the family. 

              The research team had to wait at the last hours of the day for the availability of male members of the family. There were also hardships due to lack of any transport facility during the late hours. The research team could not also get a cup of tea at times unless there is a very great house owner whose hospitality would go to the extent of providing water for the research team.  Needless to mention that there are no hotels near by.  Despite the hardships, the collection of data at the two hamlets  could be completed  within a span of 4 days with the help of the volunteers.   

Survey at the SC clusters/hamlets -Mathavaripalem and  Dadalapalem 

The survey teams got divided into two groups and one group was to collect the data at Mathavaripalem and the other at Dadalapalem.  Thus, the research activity could be expedited at the two hamlets inter alia as majority of the volunteers belong to SC community and some of the inhabitants are related to them.  

Abandonment’ viewed as Death  

                     At Dadalapalem, there was an aged  woman who informed that her husband dead, while the others near by were stating the truth that ‘he’ had  abandoned.  On enquiry, the woman answered the volunteer that in her view such a husband was dead who lived with another woman abandoning the real wife. She treats the abandonment as ‘ death’! She got her view replicated to show her husband ‘late’ in the ration card. Can such a view and treatment would cure the abandoning husband?!   

 Data Collection at Mathavaripalem Strangely Smooth 

             The collection of data could go on unhindered at Mathavaripalem and the two neighbouring hamlets of the weaker sections, who hardly had a little land holdings. There were some of the inmates known   to the team leader, especially, one Mrs Madhavi, who had unsuccessfully contested in the elections for the village president-ship.  some of the survey volunteers also know some of the villagers which could also pave the way for the survey activity to be expedited. 

                 The villagers some of whom had sold away their lands, told the survey volunteers that   the Revenue authorities especially the Mandal Revenue Officer and the surveyor have been demanding for bribes to forward the files for the completion of the sale  proceedings. 

                   The survey work also revealed some more startling facts that some of the villagers are involved in the preparation and sale of country liquor besides toddy.  There had been constant vigil by the Arrack Dealers and Prohibition and Excise Authorities but satirically   of no use.   Besides the other common social evils, this menace makes the life miserable for the villagers and particularly the women who obviously are the real victims.   

             The other social evils are Illiteracy pre dominantly among the elders and more in women, Child Marriages, Child labour and more of girls etc., It seems very common for the villagers to perform marriage of girls just after they are ‘pubert’. Some of the girls are seen carrying evern at the age of sixteen due to the customary practices and by the age of 20 years some of the girls are mothers of one or two children. The efforts of the anganwadi workers seemingly futile due to lack of education among the village folk.   

The Agitating ‘Ravies’ of Ravivari podu 

In Ravivaripodu[9],  in view of the fact that there was a tent erected and existing- at the entrance of the village between Mahalakshmi Temple and the Anjaneya Swamy Statue- showing the signs of agitation the researcher and his team had to at length explain about the research activity to the elders of Ravi families.   

           It was so explained that the socio economic survey was taken up as part of the research study of the author and not at the initiation of the KSEZ. But the Ravies’ were not inclined to give their consent for the conduction of the survey despite the added explanation that their views in the form of their grievances would also be submitted to the Revenue Officials at the Divisional and District level but in vain. The baggage of the members of the research was snatched away demanding the return of the survey formats by one of the village youth and some women of the village were literally weeping that their ‘hubby Gods [husband is traditionally considered as God]’ might scold and batter them for giving information and for according signs /thumb impressions on the survey formats.  

 Thus, the survey had inevitably been kept in abeyance and the author had to   seek the help of the Co ordinator,  K SEZ for help. 

 The Right Intervention 

            With good offices of the Co ordinator,  the Revenue Divisional Officer had convened a meeting for the villagers to explain the villagers about the strategy of the government and the KSEZ along with the ‘modus operandi’ of taking over of the lands and the rehabilitation to be taken up by the government in course of time. The duo had ‘inter alia’  explained that the socio economic survey was being organized with the knowledge and consent of the Revenue Divisional Officer and moreover,  it is an academic activity of the author prosecuting Ph. D., course and therefore, the  peasants were expected to cooperate with the research process. It was also clarified by the officials that the process of taking over of lands would not stop if the ryots would not voluntarily sell their lands  to the KSEZ and the government would be forced to pass ‘awards’ for the completion of the taking over process.      

Thus, there was a ground prepared even in the absence of the author,  for the continuation of the survey at the village as the Revenue Divisional Officer has suggested the farmers to allow the conduction of the survey in academic interest and the government is likely to come forward with some positive benefits to the poor peasants.  

Continuation of the Survey  

The Survey activity was continued at the other hamlets of the village Srirampuram viz., Ramaraghavapuram. Kollavaripalem, Pativaripalem, Katurivaripalem and Karrivaripalem without any hindrances from the villagers but for the inclement weather, lack of transport facility in and out of the villages, the survey work had continued for more than one week to cover these villages.

 Ramaraghavapuram Survey

 The survey work at the Ramaraghavapuram[10] hamlet was sought to be conducted involving the local youth in the survey work. Some of the youth, educated and being educated, showed enthusiasm to collect the data to get involved in the survey work. They were explained and demonstrated as to how the data had to be collected supplying good number of survey formats. But the youth obviously did not show any interest further to collect the data of the project affected families in their own village for the reasons best known to them.  Only one student studying first year B.Sc., had showed a little interest by completing as many as 8 survey formats. 

 Some startling facts came to light at the village while interacting with the peasants at the hamlet.  One small farmer [ Mr.Garaga  Babji] stated that his half acre land was surveyed by the village surveyor and had been mixed up to be sold away  to the KSEZ and the matter was settled as he was offered some  amount.  However, he was not ready to make any complaint about it as it would be of no use for him. 

Some of those who sold their lands to the KSEZ told the research team leader that ‘formalities’ were collected in huge sums from them at the Mandal office for forwarding the files to the KSEZ office. Ironically, people for one reason or the other, had been indifferent towards the corrupt practices.   


            The survey work at Butchireddipalem[11]the very small hamlet could be completed with ease comparatively, by the researcher and his team of volunteers. It was a very small colony with about 20 to 30 families of ‘Reddy’ community living separately from the other villagers for their ‘special identity’.  

  The stories revealed by Butchireddipalem small farmers also corroborate the version of the Ramaraghavapuram ryots.  One village youth narrated that he had to strenuously wander to the MRO office from one table to the other for days together to get his file forwarded to the KSEZ  office but could not [get help from even the TV9 channel which has been in news for the ‘Tehelka’ operations in the state of Andhra Pradesh ] help and to finally surrender to the corrupt officials at the Mandal Revenue Office. However, the Mandal Revenue Officer was later caught red handed and was suspended.  

 The Third Phase Survey at Srirampuram and Ravivaripodu 

             The survey of substantial number of households in Srirampuram and Ravivaripodu, were left out initially due to the hindrances created by the ‘innocent’ villagers. The survey was taken up to cover all the households in the third phase by the research team despite some attempts by some youth in the village to hinder the survey work. It is conducted with very less number of volunteers and it went on with more accuracy and more interactivity for about 4 days to get completed. 

             Some of the villagers were so curious to get their households covered in the survey at this stage.  The villagers were ready with their ration cards and wanted even one individual to be treated as a family to the surprise of the volunteers but when they were made to realize the dire effects of the social conditions that the children were not actually feeding their parents and there was many a parent to lead strenuous life working hard at the old age.  The scene was as common as that of the urban concrete jungles. 

Survey at Polavaram 

             The researcher and his  team had started the preliminary work for the collection of data at the Polavaram hamlet and data collection was done for the latter half of the day.  

     In the mean while, a photographer  had been engaged to get at least one  photograph  of  each one of  the hamlets.  He was directed to go to Polavaram village of Kakinada Rural Mandal alone after taking some snaps at the hamlets of Uppada  Kothapalli Mandal as the author team was engaged in guiding the data collection work near Ravivaripodu village. 

 The Photographer’s Confinement and …

              The photographer was about to leave for the day and therefore, he was told to take a snap at the habitat and to go home.  He had gone there to take a snap near a temple where children were playing at about 4pm on that day.  

               But{as the villagers did not as they told the team leader later, get proper answer for taking the snap,} they had confined him for hours together, until the team leader of the research volunteers’ team go  to get him released from the confinement.  

               The researcher was to suffer a lot due to the hurried travel and an accident in the darkness on the beach road while crossing the road at the Sakthi Gas Company.  The author  had to undergo treatment for 3 days giving rest to the research work also. 


The Last Phase of Data collection  


                In the last phase the only one hamlet of the Thammavaram village viz.,Polavaram of Kakinada Rural Mandal was taken up   The last phase could be completed within 3 days as all the volunteers were deployed in the hamlet for the survey. It is interesting to note that almost all the male elders of the hamlet get away for the work so early by 7 am itself and the survey work could not be commenced so early.  And therefore, the research volunteers had to stay back to get the survey work completed at the late hours. Still there were as many as 10 households left out for the team leader to visit the hamlet again to get one of the volunteers deployed to cover the residuary work.    

Data  Compilation and Analysis 

  First Round of Data Compilation 

                   The first round of compilation was started with the help of the volunteers to get the  preliminary details of the project affected families. It took 3 days for the whole team of volunteers to arrive at the figures after cross checking.  The total number of families, the total number of households, the dry or wetland holdings, number of children and adults, predominant caste at the village and the youth educated up to Tenth standard were collected  after sorting out and setting the formats.  The following preliminary details were submitted to the KSEZ in the form of an abstract enclosed separately. 

                Then in consultation with the KSEZ, the feeding of the family wise details to the computer was taken up.  It was sought to obtain the hamlet wise particulars of all the project affected families.  The data was reset into tabular forms to get it summed up wherever necessary.  The heads of the analyzed data constitute the salient features of the various heads indicated in the RR Package[12]

                The process of compilation, analysis and preparation of reports had been in continuous consultation with the coordinator and the Director of KSEZ.  The data which depicts the hamlet wise particulars of the project Affected families was also submitted separately in the form and size suggested by the KSEZ authorities with all the details including the soft and hard copies.  Further, all the formats used for the collection of data were spiral bounded were submitted before submission of this report. 

                 There was a lengthy discussion about the data and the reports submitted by the research team consequent to which certain suggestions were given by Sri Murthy about the preparation of the final Report.  This final report was prepared keeping in view of all the suggestions thus given. The salient features of each one of the hamlet were also depicted separately along with the photograph of each one of the hamlets in the report. 

 Table I –[13]                                                     SRIRAMPURAM-BC CLUSTERS 




DRY         WET 

01  SRIRAMPURAM[14]  BC  282  114.05  52.55  273  1003  The shepherd rearing BC village center for all other hamlets for the weekly market 
02  KARRIVARIPALEM  BC  61  24.10  3.80  61  224  The Most backward among the BCs live here 
04  PATIVARI PALEM  BC  34  45.75  12.60  34  113  The entire hamlet inhabited by toddy tappers 
         377  183.90  68.95  368  1340    

Table II [15]                                                        SRIRAMPURAM-SC  CLUSTERS 




DRY         WET 

01  KATURIVARIPALEM  SC  48  4.74  —  48  192  The most backward segment of the area among SCs 
02  KOLLAVARIPALEM  SC  92  9.48  —  92  396  The other  backward segment of the area among the SCs 
04  MATHAVARIPALEM  SC  110  17.99  —  110  406  Majority of the youth and women are seen addicted to vices and country liquor available 
         250  32.25  —  250  994    

Table III                                                         SRIRAMPURAM-OC  CLUSTERS 




DRY         WET 

01  BANDIPETA  OC  121  96.85  4.5  115  492  The land owners grew Sapota, cashew, mango and others live on  other agricultural operations 
02  MUMMIDIVARIPODU  OC  135  124.26  35.2  128  508  The land owners grew Sapota, cashew, mango and others live on  other agricultural operations 
03  RAMARGHVAPURAM  OC  150  63.86  3.00  147  569  The land owners grew casurina and others live on  other agricultural operations including nurseries 
04  BUTCHIREDDIPALEM  OC  33  36.65  1.00  33  93  The reddy community hamlet who are involved in business & dwell in neat well built houses 
         439  321.62  43.7  423  1662    

 Table IV                                                         PONNADA -SC  CLUSTER




DRY         WET 

01  DADALAPALEM  SC  67  5.5  —  67  243  The SC hamlet is nearer to Bandipeta and Mummidivari Podu 

 Table V                                                         PONNADA -OC  CLUSTER 




DRY         WET 

01  RAVIVARIPODU  OC  363  211.97  42.10  338  1443  Larger land holdings are yet to be givern to the KSEZ the rest of the PAFs are Small  and  Marginal Farmers 

Table VI                                      THAMMAVARAM -BC  CLUSTER – Kakinada Rural Mandal 




DRY         WET 

01  POLAVARAM  BC  173  2.48  5.5  173  640  The entire hamlet belongs to fishermen community 



            The author and his team of volunteers witnessed the hither to heard, un   known menaces  rampant in the area. Social evils parade unhindered adding to the already piled up loads of under development  or ill development.   It is  no easy task  for the innocent illiterate masses to know and accept for any development initiatives of the government.       

 Illiteracy [more rampant among the elders and more so in women], Child labour and more pre dominantly among the girls, Child Marriages, Marriages among the nearest cousins [‘Menarikams’[16]] were rampant in almost  all the hamlets at large. 

  • substantial number of farmers had very less land holdings but for very few farmers who had more than a hectare. Some of the landlords who had barren land holdings which  cost very less were opportunistic in selling their lands for an attractive sum of Rs.3 Lakhs.

 Nurseries of ‘casuarina’ yield a very good ransom for even the marginal farmer or lease owner sufficient for the entire year in some cases.  People from far off places even from other states like the neighbouring Orissa peep into these interior and notorious hamlets to carry away loads of casuarina and eucalyptus  saplings.  Even the traders and brokers earn a lot in the small trade of casuarina nursery. 

 The peasants claim that their customary agricultural operations contribute for the environmental protection as most of them grow casuarinas and the woods are grown for at least 4 or 5 years.  The woods of casuarinas and the Eucalyptus are exported to so many places in side and out side the state.  Through the products they had been supplying raw material for paper mills of nearby places. 

 There were allegations that the Government as well as the KSEZ had failed in organizing special awareness generation sessions for the villagers to explain them about the policy of the government and the modus operandi of taking over by the KSEZ.  It was only after the new Co ordinator, KSEZ who was instrumental in operationalizing the NFCL as a Vice President, took over charge a few days earlier to the survey, there were some direct negotiations by the KSEZ with even the poor peasants.  His initiative paved the way to avoid the confusion prevailing in the minds of the project affected area  and the fact that the lands are being taken over as part of the development initiative to constitute SEZs and he had  well spread out side. 

 It is a common scene to locate most of laborers, though not at work and  the  peasants of even a moderately rich status at work,  clad in loin cloth on their body at their waists to expose the stigmatic un civilized culture. 

 Access to medical care and even medicinal availability can only be had for the poor village folks at   distant places.  Minimum medicare  is only available at least 8 or 10 km away.  They need to strain for hours due to lack of transport facilities always when they have some trouble without imminent danger of perish.  

 They should inevitably depend upon the quacks in the name of Privat Medical Practitioners as  ‘doctors’ endangering their health and even risking their life at times.  

Women are not allowed to go for work out side their homes in the upper caste families as a customary caste  practice; they need to suffer silently even if the poverty curse them and would force them to fast but were  not allowed to go for some work to get rid of the perils of poverty. 

 Migration for work is not so common among these villagers as most of them idle at the village temples and other centers of gossip and group discussions during the local un-season though the ‘lethargy’ would lead them deep into indebtedness.  Some semi learned say that the country at large is indebted and why should any village folk fear to get indebted. 

 No equal pay for equal work –for the women.  Though women work equal hours and work well at par with the men they are less paid than that of men.  The enforcing machinery seem to have been indifferent to wards such inequality and enforcement of labour laws.  

  Rampancy   of girl child labour is more among the lower caste and it was evident through  large number of adolescent girl child labor wearing ‘half sarees’ are   seen among groups of women labourers flocking together for work and earn for their families. 

    The agony of the villagers, as expressed in their words, was that their elected representatives are of the exploitative category for the reason that they did not come to their rescue as they were actually at trouble. 

 They alleged that their MLA, Kakinada  MP and the Kakinada MLA  had a conspiracy by which their own  MLA’s village and the Kakinada MLA’s area were left out of the Notified area. 

 In effect the KSEZ had come to their area like that of the recent but unknown ‘Tsunami ‘ into their lives , they opined.  There had also been a mis-nomer spread all over these hamlets that the SEZ would start real estate business with the lands taken over by it as the ONGC had withdrawn  from the KSEZ. 

 Their worry seem to get magnified when they compare and imagine a place where they would be displaced to, where they might not have scope for helping hands they had now at this place; The people would readily come forward to extend the maximum possible help and the policy had been give and take rather than that of the materialistic concrete jungles where people do not even care to know their neighbours; and  that they might suffer a lot without such helping hands.  In effect they were not inclined to go away from their native places. 

 The ‘Mahalakshmi’ of Ravivaripodu:  According to Sri Bavisetti,  the forefathers of Bavisetti,  happened to  visit the place in search of “podus”the roots of plants  yielding color to be extracted for the dyeing industry situated at Uppada – the Mahalakshmi had followed and had got settled along with them as the availability of the podus was so good at that time. The Powerful Goddess had been blessing the ‘podu’ people for the last so many eras.  They were accustomed  to offer prayers to her who would in turn give them plenty and resourceful with her blessings ! The Goddess had not only been sacred for the ‘Ravi’ people but many a villager and even the passer by were blessed and without the blessings of Her nothing had been materialized there.  She was actually located at the north- east corner place just outside the present place of the temple that was taken and installed at the new and the present place during the recent renovation by the villagers.  

 The Goddess, alike any other country Goddess visualized as a very big sitting posture with four arms, wearing ‘Trishul’ and ‘Kripan’ in one set of  hands; and ‘Agni’ and a blessing hand in the other; while a leg ‘crushes’ the ‘Rakshasa’ and the other lies beneath the lap. The smiling Goddess sits at the back of her ‘vahan’, the Lion. 

   She had been offered prayers at the beginning of the day and specially as of mark of inaugurating any work by all the villagers in common.  She resembled that of Goddess Durga Bhavani but for the name Mahalakshmi !Oh ! The villagers too might know the holy verses of the learned scholars of Sanskrit and the ‘Puranethihasa’ that any country Goddess,  irrespective of the nomenclature viz., ‘Nookalamma’, ‘Poleramma’, ‘Ankamma’ or ‘Ankalamma’ ,’Ganganamma’, Pydamma’, Gantalamma’,’Maremma’, ’Peddintlamma’ , ‘Peddamma’ …it was nothing but Goddess Mahalakshmi. 

     It was Goddess Mahalakshmi, who gets visualized and prayed by the countrymen.  The goddess ‘inter alia’ accepts even  the       ‘ Bali’ or sacrifice of cocks and goats and at the front yard the heads of the ‘offered’ cocks were seen garlanded /stranded to the tree. Very often,  Her presence could be evinced through the revelations of some pious women in the villages when she comes in ‘poonakam’ to convey her message which shall be performed by the villagers. The researchers do not know as to what had been conveyed actually by the Mahalakshmi but for the Poonakam witnessed at Bandipeta during the Survey.  Let the Goddess bless the research team and the SEZ ! 

  Superstitions in the form of revelations by the ‘so called’ pious and chaste women called ‘poonakams’ could be witnessed to mark the psychological and un -scientific aberrations of the innocent and un educated village folks. 

 Recommendations in Brief………..  

  • The KSEZ needs to organize awareness generation events for the peasants so the villagers get understand and would certainly cooperate for the development initiative of the government and the KSEZ.

 The Government and may also the KSEZ will have to plan and take up some livelihood promotion initiatives for the project affected, including the under educated and un educated youth so also the poor peasants of productive age. 

 A special vocational training center at the community center, is desirable even to help the industries to come, to be started to cater to the need based vocational training needs of the youth and also the industrial establishments to crop up in the near future. 

 A Primary Health Center may be started at each of the hamlets to cater to the medical needs of the poor peasants affected by the project. 

 Certain women empowerment initiatives are also desirable such as counseling them for developing work culture by involving them in certain livelihood development programmes which may also lead to curing of social evils like child marriages etc., 

 Special packages for awareness generation against restraint of child marriages, marriages among the near relatives and child labour with special reference to girl child labour may be initiated. compulsory primary education and upper primary education with vocational training courses AND a home for the aged may be  curative schemes to be launched as part of the rehabilitation packages. 

Basic Amenities to be provided as per the RR Package[17] 

   Shifting community to be settled ‘en masse’ in a compact area to protect their socio cultural relations. 

Basic amenities and infrastructural facilities proposed to be provided at the proposed KSEZ village by the author and accepted in principle by the KSEZ authorities     


                  Implementation of the rehabilitation package so far as the displacement process from most of the clusters where people belonging to the lower rungs of the society were inhabited have been evacuated through the active initiation of the make belief version of some of the greedy leaders in the hamlets.  But, implementation of the later part of the promise i.e., providing employment to each member in the family whose land has been taken over is still awaited even after the lapse of three years time. [18]                                           However, as there was no valid agreement entered into between the KSEZ and the respective PAF losing land providing of employment remains an unfulfilled promise. On the other hand the KSEZ, even after 4-5 years of its inception could not get even a single project in the Multi product port based operations commenced. On the other hand the KSEZ, even after 4-5 years of its inception could not get even a single project in the Multi product Port Based [KSEZ] commenced. Therefore, the envisioned development in the area remained a myth as the small, marginal and poor peasants along with the landless poor Project Affected Families remained  hapless  without proper rehabilitation after the displacement. 



[1] His wife was the elected representative of the village. Though the reservation policy initiated by the AP State Government in  the local bodies  is aimed at to ultimately solve the  women problems and bring in equality with men, the reality is that the women representatives especially of the weaker sections of the society have to inevitably depend upon their ‘hubby- gods’ who accompany and or often substitute the women representatives of the people even in the official meetings. 

[2] Village elder and the key person having rights perspective and  intellectual bent of mind 

[3] Rehabilitation and Resettlement (R&R Policy for Government of Andhra Pradesh, GO Ms.No.68 dated 8th April, 2005 requires to provide a broad canvas for an effective dialogue between the Project Affected Families[PAFs] and the Project Displaced and the government. 

[4] Rehabilitation and Resettlement (R&R Policy for Government of Andhra Pradesh, GO Ms.No.68 dated 8th April, 2005 

[5] Rehabilitation and Resettlement (R&R Policy for Government of Andhra Pradesh, GO Ms.No.68 dated 8th April, 2005. 

[6] The entire village /hamlet is predominantly inhabited by people belonging to a particular case categorized under Other Backward Classes –comprising of mostly illiterate masses depending upon cattle/shepherd rearing, agricultural  and other petty nursery  operations 

[7] Predominently inhabited by upper caste people where the women are not accustomed to go out for work as a caste custom however poor they are 

[8] The upper caste segment where most of the youth got educated and the conditions of the women folk are same as that of the other hamlet 

[9] The village where several land lords small farmers and other caste Hindus live and a good number of farmers grow nurseries of ‘casurina’ ‘eucalyptus’ and supply the same to the neighbouring states of Andhra Pradesh  during the season and pull on with the seasonal earnings through out the year 

[10] The hamlet gives a developed look to a certain extent as the children have immediate access to primary education in the hamlet 

[11] The small hamlet had very good households. Some of the inhabitants own rice mills to cater to the needs of the local and surrounding villages 

[12] Rehabilitation and Resettlement (R&R Policy for Government of Andhra Pradesh, GO Ms.No.68 dated 8th April, 2005. 

[13]  The tables only depict only very brief particulars. and the author may be consulted for other details 

The survey has been conducted with the help of PG students who were only patient enough to collect the data for the first day  

[14] Very brief and relevant  particulars are depicted and the author may be consulted for other details 

[15] It was incidental that most of the survey volunteers belong to SC community and could familiarize fast with the villagers and the data  collection work could be completed without much difficulty at the SC colonies. 

[16] The Hindu law prohibits ‘Sapinda’  relationship but the local custom prevails over the law especially among the country folk  who generally do not allow their girls sent to distant places and prefer to give them in marriage within the village if possible. 

[17] Rehabilitation and Resettlement (R&R Policy for Government of Andhra Pradesh, GO Ms.No.68 dated 8th April, 2005. 

[18] See Deccan Chronicle, February 10th, 2010- ‘…..Several of the 600 families rehabilitated in Moolapeta[KSEZ village] from various places like Srirampuram, Ramaraghavapuram, Ravivaripodu and other areas [Matha vari palem, Dadalapalem, Karrivari palem, Kollavari palem, Katurivari Palem etc.,] complain that the authorities did not provide the complete rehabilitation package, including provision of employment to adults, in the families of the displaced. Some complain that the compensation money paid three years ago was spent on their domestic needs as they do not have permanent employment after displacement from their respective villages due to land acquisition. 

…………..Sri  V.V. Ramakrishna, KSEZ special officer (appointed by the revenue authorities), said that the process of rehabilitation was speeded up and would be completed soon.’


  • Dear Sir,
    I want to know about the project work regarding social economic survey in which i can use some statistical application.
    and how to make a project.
    sir please guide me, i am waiting for your response.

    neha sharma

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